From the point of a new model of global carbon turnover photosynthesis and its evolution should be considered only in connection with geological processes on the Earth. Global photosynthesis is the main element of the global carbon cycle and is the result of activity of all living on the planet photosynthesizing organisms. First it was shown that the global photosynthesis can be described by the same equation as traditional photosynthesis. Final approximation of this equation can be expressed as follows
hv (CO2+H2O)atmosphere+hydrosphere → COM + O2 atmosphere
The role of biomass in it is played by buried organic matter which is transformed biomass of organisms lived in the past. Most of the global photosynthesis features also similar to those of traditional one. According to the equation, the reaction substrate, concentration of CO2 in the environment, is inversely proportional to the reaction product, atmospheric oxygen concentration, whereas the reaction products, atmospheric O2 concentration and analog of biomass, the rate of accumulation of buried organic matter are proportional. The analysis shows that global photosynthesis has all the features of traditional photosynthesis, except the ability to ontogeny. Like traditional, global photosynthesis has photoassimilation and photorespiration. The amount of synthesized biomass depends on the CO2/O2 ratio in the environment. CO2 concentration growth in the environment provides increasing assimilation and biomass growth, O2 concentration growth stimulates photorespiration and reduces the biomass growth. Global photosynthesis has the ability to fractionate carbon isotopes. Increased assimilation leads to the enrichment of biomass with the 12C isotope. Increased photorespiration enriches biomass with 13C isotope. Cyclicity is the main feature of photosynthesis evolution. It is the result of its participation in orogenic cycles that ultimately arise due to the gravitational influence of celestial bodies on the earth’s orbital motion around the sun. This affects magma convection causing lithospheric plates’ motion. Moving plates collide and evolving energy initiates thermochemical sulfate reduction which oxidizes sedimentary organic matter. Resultant CO2 fills “atmosphere hydrosphere” system and stimulates photosynthesis. Subsequent development of photosynthesis reduces CO2 concentration and evolves O2. These sequence of events results in climatic and biotic turnover. All the sequence of events composes the orogenic cycles and ends with mass extinction of organisms. The participation in orogenic cycles provided repeated combination of CO2 entry and subsequent developing photosynthesis which completed by abrupt dramatic change for another cycle. Multiple repetition of photosynthesis dynamics against the background of progressive and irreversible changes in the oxygenation of the environment led to the consolidation of the most important useful properties of living systems. On the other hand, it brought the whole system to a stationary state.

Dr. Alexander Ivlev received his PhD (1968) in the Chemical Technology Institute of Mendeleyev (Moscow). The next PhD (1986), he got in the Institute of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences for research on biophysical mechanisms in photosynthesizing cell. In 2005 he was awarded the medal of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences “To Author of Scientific Discovery” for establishing link between distribution of carbon isotopes in metabolites and temporal organization of metabolic processes. Since 1971 he worked in the Scientific Research Institute of Oil Prospecting. In 1995 he became a Professor of Russian State Agrarian University. Here he discovered the carbon isotope effect in photorespiration (1993) and the oscillatory nature of photosynthesis (2004) and began the project “ Global Carbon Cycle”. He is an author of 5 scientific monographs and over 230 publications in Russian and foreign journals. His last monograph (2019) was published in Cambridge Scholars Publishing is entitled “The Global Carbon Cycle and the Evolution of Photosynthesis”.