Day1

  • Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania
  • Title:Increasing the Efficiency of Triangle Solar Thermal Collectors with Internal Cavity by using Turbulators with Different Shapes
  • Time :

Abstract
Sustainable energy technologies such as building integrated solar thermal systems may significantly contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions by substituting a part of the fossil fuel used in buildings for space heating and domestic hot water preparation. Among these systems, solar thermal facades are good candidates when optimally oriented. Because the building facades are visible, the implementation of commercial solar thermal collector with rectangular shapes and dark colours may raise issues of architectural acceptance. To tackle these issues, non-rectangular (trapeze and triangle) solar thermal collectors with colored absorber plates (green, orange, red etc.) were developed in the Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling Research Centre of the Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania. The novel triangle solar thermal collector has an equilateral triangle shape, a small surface (0.06 m2) and non-dark colours (orange and green) allowing its integration in solar thermal facades with increased architectural acceptance and high coverage factor. Because of the small surface, the water circulates through an internal cavity beneath the entire absorber plate, instead of pipes as in the commercial solar thermal collectors having a significantly higher surface (around 2 m2). In the initial design of this novel solar thermal collector, a thickness of 20 mm resulted for the water layer in the internal cavity from constructive requirements. Indoor testing in standard conditions revealed color dependent efficiencies between 35 and 55%. To further increase the efficiency of the novel triangle solar thermal collector, an optimization process was developed by changing the water layer thickness and the mass flow rate. An absolute gain of 10.78% was obtained for the nominal efficiency and an average absolute gain of 10.35% over the entire range of inlet temperature by decreasing the thickness of the water layer to 5 mm while the mass flow rate was increased to
0.01 kg/s. In this paper, turbulators with various shapes installed in the internal cavity of the triangle solar thermal collector are considered to further improve its efficiency. The turbulators are modelled in SolidWorks and integrated in the 3D model of the triangle solar thermal collector. This 3D model is imported in Ansys Fluent for computational fluid dynamics simulations. The simulation results are comparatively discussed for the selected geometries of the turbulators. The influence of the shapes of the turbulators on the triangle solar thermal collector efficiency is analyzed.

Biography
Dr. Macedon Moldovan in 2013-2017 Lecturer at Faculty of Product Design and Environment, Transilvania University of Brasov 1997-2013 Design Engineer – Facilities for buildings, 2017-present Associate Professor at Faculty of Product Design and Environment, Transilvania University of Brasov, 2019-present Coordinator of the Study programme „Engineering of the Renewable Energy Systems”, Faculty of Product Design and Environment, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania, 2019-present Deputy chairperson of the Technical Committee for Sustainable Energy Systems, International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science

  • Continental University, Peru
  • Title:Analysis of the Influence of Solar Cycles on Meteorological Variables in the Central Inter-Andean Valley of Peru in the Period 1986–2019
  • Time :

Abstract
This research aims to analyze the relationship between solar cycles and meteorological variables in the Central Inter-Andean Valley during the period 1986–2019. Sunspot data were obtained from the Royal Observatory of Belgium for solar cycles 22, 23 and 24, and the meteorological variables of the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru from five stations that are distributed in the Valley. For the correlation of the variables, the nonparametric Spearman statistical test with a third-degree polynomial regression was applied. The results show that there is a decrease in the number of sunspots in cycle 24, and that the temperature varies by 3.85 ◦C in the study period. Of the five stations analyzed, four of them show that there is no relation between the variables and only in the station Viques there is an inverse relation for α < 0.05 referring to the variables of maximum temperature and sunspots, obtaining a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.619. Therefore, solar activity does not influence the climate variability of the study valley, and this could be due to anthropogenic activities such as the production of energy with fossil fuels. As a recommendation we must decarbonize the energy sector and use renewable energy sources. Biography
Dr.Gonzalo Jesus Fernandez Ladera graduated from the Continental University in Peru, with interests in scientific research on climate change, renewable energy, application and development of space technologies for monitoring the Peruvian territory and many other areas that are important for sustainable development . His research was developed together with his colleagues Angie Chucos, Kiara Chihuan, Anieval Peña and Nabilt Moggiano.

  • Forest Ecology and Management, Brazil
  • Title:Are Liming and Pit Size Determining for Tree Species Establishment in Degraded Areas by Kaolin Mining?
  • Time :

Abstract
Although its great contribution to the global economy on different scales and in the development of goods and services, mining activities usually cause strong negative impacts to the environments. They intensely degrade soil structures, watersheds, and modify landscapes. Fast-growing pioneer tree species have been effective to restore structure and functions of ecosystems degraded by mining in the Amazon. In this way, the objective of this work was to assess chemical indicators of soil quality, survival, and initial growth of six tree pioneer species planted in an ecosystem degraded by kaolin mining and under the effects of liming in three pit volumes in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. The assessed initial conditions showed highly degraded soil, including acidic pH, low content of OM, P, and K. Liming worked to reduce significantly the level of toxic Al in the soil and provided Ca and Mg for the plants. Once applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the two first components explained 69.30% of the total variance of 13 functional indicators of soil quality. PC1 was positively correlated with Ca, Mg, K, SB, CEC, and V% and negatively correlated with H+Al, and Al saturation. The survival of planted individuals was higher than 80% for Clitoria fairchildiana in all treatments. Liming and pit volume determined growth, with high growth rates in height of Inga edulis, Inga cayennensis, Clitoria fairchildiana, and Tachigali vulgaris. The species used in this study presented good initial development in restoring ecosystems after kaolin mining.

Biography
Gustavo Schwartz – Biologist, PhD.BS in Biological Sciences at Federal University of Santa Maria (1999), MSc in Ecology at State University of Campinas (2001), both in Brazil. PhD in Forest Ecology and Management at Wageningen University (2013) in the Netherlands. Gustavo currently is researcher of Embrapa Eastern Amazon (Belém, PA, Brazil) and assistant professor in the Post-Graduate Program of Forest Sciences of the Federal Rural University of the Amazon (UFRA – Campus Belém). He works in research on Ecology (Populations and Communities), Management, Silviculture, Recovering, and Conservation of Tropical Forests)

Co-Authors
Victor Pereira de Oliveira – Forest Engineer, MSc.
Walmer Bruno Rocha Martins – Forest Engineer, PhD.
Julia Isabella de Matos Rodrigues – Forest Engineer.
Arystides Resende Silva – Forest Engineer, PhD.
José do Carmo Alves Lopes – Forest Engineer, MSc.
João Fernandes de Lima Neto – Forest Engineer, MSc.

  • Mexican Institute of Water Technology ,Mexico
  • Title:Effects of Climate Change on the Environmental Flows in the Conchos River (Chihuahua, Mexico).
  • Time :09:50 - 10:15 AM

Abstract
This study analyses the water availability in the Conchos River basin (Northern México) through the amount and frequency of the precipitation. Precipitation is associated with the environmental flows in determining how much of the flow in the river has been altered by the effects of climate change or human influence. Changes in water were determined by two precipitation periods: before (1961-1983) and after (1984-2008), using a climatological mesh database created by Center of Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada. Two periods for their differences in the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was calculated. IHA V7 program was used for the analysis of environmental flows. In the after period, there were significant increases in precipitation during the rainy season, with a substantial decrease in minimum precipitations and in the number of storms. On the other hand, during the dry season, it rained less, making the climate extreme and indicating a change in the humidity patterns. There was a total alteration of the environmental flows of the river. This aspect generated a total loss of the frequency, magnitude, duration, and periodicity of the environmental flows during the year due to the management of the dam for electricity generation, irrigation, and flood control, altering the composition, structure and function of the riparian ecosystem. However, the synergic effect of climate on the water availability was observed. Advantage of determining environmental flows is that decision-makers can know how many changes have been introduced into the river flow patterns by human consumption or by climate change.

Biography
Dr. Rebeca González Villela has a Ph.D. in Biology Sciences (Systems Ecology and Aquatic Resources) at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, with studies in Spain on the Environmental Flows Calculation of Freshwater Resources (Polytechnic University of Madrid), Climate Change and Sustainable Management Watershed in Australia (Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, University of Sydney). She has be a professor of Postgraduate Studies at various universities. She has given the chairs of Biophysics, Primary Productivity, Conservation and Recovery of Surface Water Bodies. She has been the Coordinator of the Biophysics Academy at the Faculty of Sciences (Biology in UNAM). She is currently a Researcher at the Mexican Institute of Water Technology. and has participated in numerous national and international conferences. She has published 4 books and scientific articles in national and international journals and book chapters. She is a reviewer in international Journals.

  • V. G. Vaze College Autonomous, India
  • Title:An Eco-friendly Innovative Halide and Metal-free Basic Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo [b] Pyran Derivatives in Aqueous Media: A Sustainable Protocol
  • Time :10:15 - 10:40 AM

Abstract
A novel imidazolium-based highly efficient, recoverable, and reusable basic ionic liquid [PEMIM][OH] was synthesized and employed as a catalyst for the multicomponent synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo [b] pyran derivatives by the condensation of dimedone, malononitrile and various substituted aldehydes in aqueous media. Novelty, the efficacy of the catalyst, high yields of desired products, greener approach and use of aqueous media make this protocol worthwhile. The isolation of pure, high yielded desired product by sidestepping the column and recrystallization technique was also demonstrated in this protocol. The novel catalyst and synthesized compounds were characterized by using various analytical techniques such as FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, LC-Mass, Elemental, HSQC, HPLC, TG-DSC, TG-DTG and single crystal XRD analysis.

Biography
Dr. Paresh Suryakant More He is Associate Professor in Chemistry at The K.E.T’S, V.G.Vaze College Autonomous, His Research area Solid State in Chemistry, Material Sciences, Composite Materials , Metal Organic Framework and its application, Ferrites and its application in photo degradation, Water splitting reaction to generate H2 gas, Batteries and supercapacitors

  • National Taiwan Ocean University , Taiwan
  • Title:Co-existence and Co-prosperity between Offshore Wind Farms and Fishermen
  • Time :10:40 - 11:05 AM

Abstract
In order to reduce carbon emissions and achieve a nuclear-free homeland, the Taiwan government revised the “Guidelines on Energy Development” in 2017 for its energy transition. By 2025, renewable energy is expected to reach 20%, with offshore wind power of 4.2 GW, an estimated power generation capacity of 14 billion kWh, and an annual carbon reduction of 7.1 million tons. However, among the 36 planned offshore wind farms in Taiwan, 21 are off the coast of Changhua. This is an important fishing ground for the coastal fishery industry and a production base for aquaculture in shallow marine water. Offshore wind farms are bound to affect the livelihood of fishermen. Therefore, through the co-existence and co-prosperity between wind farms and fishery, the conflicts in sea area utilization can be solved by marine spatial planning (MSP) and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM).
It is worth the time to think about how to use the idle sea areas between offshore wind turbines. Sea areas in wind farms may be efficiently used if marine ranches and cage culture can be planned based on the concept of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Therefore, on the premise of investments in cage culture, this study evaluated the marine environment, biological resources, hardware settings, legal norms, and economic feasibility of the predetermined area of Phase 1 wind power plant off the coast of Changhua, Taiwan. According to the results, round cages could help reduce the impacts of ocean currents and tides, and 16 cages placed in sea areas among four wind turbines could achieve economic scale and remarkable fishery benefits without affecting the safety of wind turbines. If fishes with high economic values are cultured in cages and species from various trophic levels, such as seaweed and shellfish, are produced, then this can reduce impacts on the overall environment and help increase the values of fishery resources, so that the sea areas for offshore wind power can be sustainably operated.
Taiwan’s coastal fishery industry is declining day by day. While wind farms are in conflict with the industry, it can be a turning point for fishermen. It is better to teach someone to fish than to give him a fish. Measures, such as proper compensation mechanisms, a friendly adjustment on fishery management, and sound fishing village development, can aid in the co-existence and co-prosperity between wind farms and fishery after energy transition.

Biography
Dr Cheng Ting Huang PhD, Department of Aquaculture , National Taiwan Ocean University, R.O.C.
Experience: Supervisor, Taiwan Fishery Economic Development Association. Secretary-general, Taiwan Fishery Sustainability Development Association. Director, Taiwan Association for Marine Environmental and Education (TAMEE).
Present Position: Associate Professor, Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University. Chairman, Aquatic Animal Center, Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University.
Field of Specialization: Economics of Aquaculture, Management of Aquaculture.
Since 2016, he has carried out more than 30 research projects, including cage aquaculture fishery, symbiosis of fishing and electricity, aquaculture economic and management, artificial intelligence techniques to implement a practical smart aquaculture management system, and published 20 research articles on aquaculture economics and management in international journals

  • University of Milan-Bicocca, Italia
  • Title:The Self-assembly of Sepiolite and Silica fillers for Advanced Rubber Materials: The Role of Collaborative Filler Network
  • Time :11:25 - 11:50 AM

Abstract
SiO2-based nanofillers, commonly used to enhance the mechanical properties in tyres, favor a low hysteresis while maintaining sufficient reinforcement respect to the carbon black. However, a need remains to further reduce the rolling resistance of the tyres, and so to identify new fillers that allow a further improvement in the balance between hysteresis and reinforcement of materials. In this context, the present work aims at studying the self-assembly of two different white nanofillers, such as sepiolite and silica, and the role of collaborative filler network in rubber nanocomposites (NCs), considering that clay/silica hybrid systems could be a possible strategy to reduce the hysteresis of rubber materials, thanks to the potential synergistic effect between isotropic and anisotropic fillers.
Thus, rubber NCs containing silica and different kind of sepiolite were prepared by combining latex compounding technique (LCT) and melt blending. Highly filled NR masterbatches (MBs) were firstly prepared by coagulating natural rubber (NR) latex and sepiolite aqueous suspension, and then mixed with NR rubber matrix together with silica filler, silane coupling agent, vulcanizing agents, and antioxidants. An exhaustive morphological, rheological, and dynamic-mechanical analysis demonstrates that the use of double white fillers, having different aspect ratios, allows to obtain a good trade-off between efficient reinforcement and low Payne effect. These results have been ascribed to the formation of a cooperative filler network, deriving from the remarkable interaction of both fillers with the polymer, as assessed by morphological and spectroscopic investigations.
This study, even if referred to clay/silica double fillers, provides clear evidence of the significant role of self-assembly of hybrid nanofillers to produce a collaborative filler network and thus advanced rubber materials.

Biography
Dr. Barbara Di Credico is Graduated in Chemistry in 2001 at University “La Sapienza” of Rome, she obtained the PhD in Inorganic Chemistry at University of Florence. After working as post-doctoral researcher at Politecnico of Milano and at University of Milano Bicocca (Unimib), in March 2015, she became Assistant Professor of Fundamentals of Chemical Technologies at Unimib. She is a member of PhD Council on Materials Science and Nanotechnology, PhD Program of University of Milano- Bicocca. She coordinates the activity research of PhD students of CORIMAV (Consortium for research on materials between Unimib and Pirelli) and is responsible and referent for the research activity involving Pirelli Tyre.
She has advanced background in design and development of nanocomposite, hybrid and smart materials. Her research interests are nanostructured oxides and organic-inorganic materials for environmental cleaning, and design and development of rubber composites. She co-authored more than 40 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 4 book chapters, 7 patents, and involved in many national and international research projects.

  • University of Hasselt, Belgium
  • Title:Biodiversity of Collembola on Green Roofs: A case Study of Three Cities in Belgium
  • Time :11:50 - 12:15 AM

Abstract
Green roofs are often promoted as a mean to counter the negative environmental effects of urbanization on nature and to increase the amount of green space in cities. Green roofs often enhance aboveground biodiversity, especially herbivores and pollinators. However, if and in what way they support belowground biodiversity, and more specifically soil fauna, is rarely studied. Therefore, we evaluated the diversity of a dominant group of soil fauna, Collembola (springtails), on twelve extensive green roofs in three cities in Belgium (Antwerp, Ghent and Hasselt), over a one year period. The roofs differed in height above the ground, surface area, vegetation type, and age, i.e. time since construction. We analysed if these roof characteristics influenced species richness, abundance or diversity of Collembola. In total we found ten species of Collembola. Species richness was not higher on roofs that were larger (habitat area) or closer to the ground (isolation to surrounding soil), indicating that island-biogeographic theory is not applicable to species richness in our study system. However, significant differences in the mean number of individuals (abundance) were found between different months. Collembola taxonomical composition also varied between the roofs, but this variation could not be related to any of the measured roof variables. Roof communities were characterised by hemiedaphic life forms, preferring neutral to semi-moist conditions. Apart from the age of the roof that showed a positive significant impact on the abundance of Collembola present, our results suggested that the collembolan fauna showed no significant differences in abundance, species richness or diversity between roofs with different characteristics. However, we suggest that future studies are needed to investigate whether our findings are applicable to other groups of soil-living arthropods on green roofs.

Biography
Dr Jeffrey Jacobs Master of science: evolution en behavioural-biology
PhD Research project: Biodiversity on urban green roofs: a focus on macro-invertebrates
Hisresearch focuses on assessing the biodiversity on green roofs. Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms.
In the first part of my PhD he focussed on belowground biodiversity, which was assessed for a deliberately chosen group of soil arthropods: the springtails (Collembola). Collembola are among the most abundant and widespread terrestrial arthropods, and are important in many soil functions such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, what explains their diversity and species composition in isolated, small habitat fragments is less known.
Furthermore, are we currently investigating multiple green roofs in the city of Antwerp (Belgium) and focussing on the aboveground macro-invertebrates that live on them (main focus wild bees). This research has the potential to contribute to the academic understanding of biodiversity on green roofs, but more than this, it may have an impact on wider society. With worldwide increasing urbanization it is crucial that we understand how we can counteract the loss of biodiversity in urban areas. Green roofs are seen as the number one method to get more green spaces in cities, however there is a lack of studies in Belgium on green roofs and how they can support biodiversity. We hope that by doing so we can derive main principles regarding the design of green roofs with the aim of maximizing their macro-invertebrate biodiversity.

  • Bharathi Women’s College, India
  • Title:A Review on the Remediation of Microplastics using Bionanomaterials
  • Time :12:15 - 12:40 PM

Abstract
Microplastics are formed by the physicochemical breakdown of plastics. It is an alarming worldwide issue with long-lasting and hazardous effects. Natural expulsion of microplastics would take several years and it might also result in dangerous outcomes. To remediate these harmful microplastics several technological innovations were developed over the years. Among them, nanotechnological techniques have been investigated to a large extent for the remediation of microplastics. However, the production of nanomaterials using physical and chemical methods have been proven to be hazardous to the environment in several ways. Bio-nanotechnology is an alternative solution. Though it is a well-known and much investigated topic, it still remains primitive when it comes to microplastic remediation. Knowledge about the extensive possibilities of bionanoremediation would serve to be useful for the researchers to develop advanced eco-friendly strategies to control and eradicate the microplastics in a sustainable manner.

Biography
Dr. Rose Mary Kiriyanthan Graduate in Plant biology and Plant Biotechnology, and a Masters in Biotechnology from Stella Maris College (Autonomous) affiliated to the University of Madras, Chennai. Currently pursuing Ph.D. in Botany from Bharathi women’s college (Autonomous) affiliated to the University of Madras, Chennai. My research experience spanning for over 4 years helped me gain 5 publications in peer reviewed journals. My research interest includes Bio-nanotechnology and Phytochemistry.

  • Cairo University, Egypt
  • Title:Integrated Approach for Sustainability Assessment in Power Plant Projects using Building Information Modeling
  • Time :02:05 - 02:30 PM

Abstract
This research proposes a framework for sustainability assessment for power plant projects. The proposed framework integrates sustainability and Building Information Modeling (BIM) to achieve enhanced results concerning sustainability assessment in the power plants sector. International and regional sustainability rating systems as well as design guidelines are studied to develop a new sustainability assessment system dedicated to power plant projects. A total of 54 criteria, clustered in eight categories, are considered in the rating system. These categories are: 1) Nature and Urban 2) Site, 3) Energy, 4) Water, 5) Materials and Resources,
6) Emissions and Environment, 7) Operation and Management, and 8) Culture and economy. The sustainability levels are ranked in six levels: Non-Sustainable, Improved, Enhanced, Superior, Conserving, Restorative. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is implemented to set the weights of the criteria that are considered in the proposed sustainability system. BIM is utilized to develop a plugin for the proposed rating system to determine the level of sustainability of power plant projects. The developed plugin invests the BIM model attributes to provide the stakeholder with an instantaneous sustainability metric tool that saves time and reduces the possible errors. A case study of a 100 MW power plant is presented to test the effectiveness of the developed approach in the sustainability assessment.

Biography
Dr. Ali Azzam is a Senior piping design and stress analysis Engineer in Petrojet company in Egypt. He got his Master’s Degree in integrated Engineer in in Design Projects from the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University in 2020. His research interest is sustainable development asset integrity, mainly in Energy and oil fields. His related research paper was published in Energy for Sustainable development journal, which is Q1 ranked. The research provided an advanced dynamic method for measuring the sustainability of power plants projects by linking the criteria with the Parametric design in the Engineering design software platform, which introduces more accurate and instant results. He got the certification of Leadership in Energy and Environment Design Green Associate (LEED GA) in 2020. From 2014 he worked as a design engineer in Infrastructure, Power generation plants, and Oil and Gas fields. He participated in Megaprojects of design and rehabilitation of Infrastructure and Energy projects in Asia, Africa, and the Middle. In 2021 he started his Ph.D. journey in the Mechanical Design and Production Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. In 2021 he established his own company which provides Engineering solutions in Infrastructure and oil fields.

  • Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), South Korea
  • Title:The Process Development of Liquid Air Energy Storage System (LAES)
  • Time :02:30 - 02:55 PM

Abstract
The development of long-term energy storage is more important today than ever because intermittent renewable energy source, such as wind and solar photovoltaic are growing rapidly in power generation market. Therefore, the demand on a bulk storage system is expected to increase significantly as result of renewable energy policy. The compressed air energy storage and liquid air energy storage system are an innovative technology for commercial grid scale energy storage. Especially liquid air energy storage system is expected to overcome the drawbacks of pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage. The proposed system is a novel stand-alone LAES system to enhance Round-Trip Efficiency (RTE) using a sensible heat store of packed bed type and latent heat store unit. The cryogenic Phase Change Material (PCM) melts at 110K based on experimental result, making it possible to provide cold enerrgy at a constant temperature for air liquefaction. The analysis shows that the implementation of energy recycling from the compressor and cold thermal store leads to a high RTE than conventional LAES system.

Biography
Ju-Yeol Ryu received B.S degree in dept. Of mechanical eng. from Yeungnam University in 2010 and MSc in mechanical eng. from Sungkyunkwan University in 2021. He worked Samsung C&T Corporation for 6 years since 2010 as basic design process engineer. He is currently a senior researcher at Institute for Advanced Engineering(IAE). He research focues on long-term mechanical Energy Storage System(ESS) to supply power energy stably such as Liquid Air Energy Storage(LAES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES).

  • Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
  • Title:Biochar and Hydrochar in the Context of Anaerobic Digestion for a Circular Approach: an overview
  • Time :02:55 - 03:20 PM

Abstract
Biochar and hydrochar are carbonaceous materials with valuable applications. They can be synthesized from a wide range of organic wastes, including digestate. Digestate is the byproduct of anaerobic digestion (AD), which is performed for bioenergy (biogas) production from organic residues. Through a thermochemical process, such as pyrolysis, gasification, and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), digestate can be converted into biochar or hydrochar. The addition of either biochar or hydrochar in AD has been reported to improve biochemical reactions and microbial growth, increasing the buffer capacity, and facilitating direct interspecies electrons transfer (DIET), resulting in higher methane (CH4) yields. Both biochar and hydrochar can adsorb undesired compounds present in biogas, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and even siloxanes. However, an integrated understanding of biochar and hydrochar produced from digestate through their return to the AD process, as additives or as adsorbents for biogas purification, is yet to be attained to close the material flow loop in a circular economy model. Therefore, this overview aimed at addressing the integration of biochar and hydrochar production from digestate, their utilization as additives and effects on AD, and their potential to adsorb biogas contaminants. This integration is supported by life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, showing positive results when combining AD and the aforementioned thermochemical processes, although more LCA is still necessary. Techno-economic assessment (TEA) studies of the processes considered are also presented, and despite an expanding market of biochar and hydrochar, further TEA is required to verify the profitability of the proposed integration, given the specificities of each process design. Overall, the synthesis of biochar and hydrochar from digestate can contribute to improving the AD process, establishing a cyclic process that is in agreement with the circular economy concept.

Biography
Dr. Matheus Cavali holds a degree in Environmental and Sanitary Engineering from the Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Brazil, and a master’s degree in Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology from the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. He researched biodiesel production from agro-industrial residues through chemical and enzymatic catalysis, and also pretreatment and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass for waste valorization. He is currently a Ph.D. student at the Graduate Program in Environmental Engineering at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, where he researches hydrochar production. He has published in different peer-reviewed journals.

  • Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan
  • Title:Mineral Policy in MENA Countries: The Case of Jordan
  • Time :03:20 - 03:45 PM

Abstract
This research paper intends to review the mineral development and investment policies of Jordan. The formulation of mining policies that will attract foreign investment must address conventionally acknowledged investor concerns and some new challenges. Issues that have been extensively examined in the paper include country’s characteristics such as geological, political, financial, regulatory, operational, fiscal, social and environmental, and profit and marketing criteria. Once these criteria are analyzed for Jordan, they have been compared to the MENA region to provide insights of possible changes and improvements to both the MENA and Jordan mineral policy. For some time, Jordan’s mineral policies were not favorable for developing the country’s mineral sector, but mineral policies are now being changed to address aspects that need improvement. With better mining regulations in place; more efficient regulatory agencies; more liberal foreign investment regulations; a competitive tax system; upgraded infrastructure; a greater availability of excellent local expertise and skills; as well as a stable economic and political system, this will position the MENA countries as an excellent place to invest in mining and create more economic diversity for the whole region.

Biography
Dr. Rami Al Rawashdeh is a Professor in Minerals Economics. He received his PhD degree in Minerals Economics from Curtin University of Technology, Australia in 2007. He received his Masters degree in Mining Engineering from Wollongong University, Australia in 2003. In 2009/2010, he held the position of the Assistant Dean of the Faculty of Engineering in Al-Hussein Bin Talal University; in 2017/2018 he was the head of Mining Engineering Department and currently he is a lecturer in the Department of Mining Engineering. He teaches courses related to mining engineering, engineering economics, engineering management for engineers,, renewable energy management, and resources evaluation. His research interests include minerals market analysis, minerals policy, feasibility of minerals projects, resource curse and economic development, and renewable energy management.

  • University of Pennsylvania, USA
  • Title:Current State of Industrial Heating and Opportunities for Decarbonization
  • Time :03:45 - 04:10 PM

Abstract
In the United States, industrial emissions represent 22% of greenhouse gas emissions and are particularly hard to decarbonize, because (1) the processes emit CO2 as a byproduct of chemical reactions and (2) these industries require high-grade heat input. This study focuses on some of these industries, namely cement, lime, glass, and steelmaking. This work details the incumbent kiln and furnace technologies and explores the emerging processes with examples of existing projects that aim to reduce carbon emissions, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), fuel switching, and other technological changes. We provide tools to evaluate the most appropriate low-carbon solutions at existing facilities and on new-build infrastructure while taking into account the local context and resources.
This presentation highlights one state within the U.S., California, as it has a high concentration of cement, lime, glass, and steelmaking facilities. The emissions from cement, lime, and glass facilities in California total 8.5 MtCO2eq/yr. About 6.3 MtCO2/yr (7.1% of in-state industrial emissions) could be captured from cement and lime facilities, transported, and stored in sedimentary basins below the Central Valley. Replacing 20% of coal by biomass could also reduce the fossil emissions by 0.5 MtCO2/yr (6.2% of in-state industrial emissions) without making changes to the facilities. As shown by this example, there are many strategies leading to the deep decarbonization of the economy and they need to be adapted to the local context.

Biography
Dr. Maxwell Pisciotta is a 3rd-year Ph.D. Candidate in Chemical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania where his research is focused on carbon capture and carbon removal technologies, economics, and policy. Max also holds a B.S. and M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines. When Max is not in the lab or completing coursework, he volunteers his time with the Climate Leaders at Penn to help educate people with non-technical backgrounds about climate change and potential solutions.

  • University of Sakarya, Turkey
  • Title:Investigation of Poultry Slaughterhouse Waste Stream to Produce Biofuel for Internal Utilization
  • Time :04:30 - 04:55 PM

Abstract
Poultry slaughterhouses generate an abattoir sludge (PAS) that needs proper management in the principles of circular economy and green deal goals that imply a net-zero emissions, more resource efficient and sustainable economy. This study proposes a waste-to-energy approach as a sustainable strategy for water heating by utilizing waste stream and internal usage in poultry slaughterhouse sector. In the study, energy crop Arundo donax (AD) biomass produced by irrigating treated abattoir waste water and solar dried PAS were used to produce bio pellet for the boiler heater. The solar dried PAS and grinded AD straw were extruded into pellets using a real industrial press at biomass combustion plants using i) 100% PAS:0% AD, ii) 50% PAS:50% AD, iii) 0% PAS:100% AD. The calorific value, bulk density, and energy density of the PAS, AD and PAS + AD pellets were in the range of 16.81-28.78 MJ kg-1 , 646-779 kg m-3 , and 10.86-22.71 GJ m-3 , respectively. Combustion image analysis results indicated the better flame richness and red color intensity of PAS + AD pellets than the both PAS and AD. Based on the results, almost 58% of the daily used fossil fuel coal for hot water production can be replaced by renewable PAS + AD pellets.

Biography
Dr. Aslı Simsek got her Master’s Degree in Environmental Engineer from the Faculty of Engineering, Sakarya University, Turkey in 2022. She researched poultry slaughterhouse waste stream to produce biofuel for internal utilization. Her related research paper was published in Renewable Energy journal. The research showed that PAS residue derived from poultry slaughterhouse and energy crops straw, produced using treated wastewater, are free of charge and shows a great potential to be integrated as a feedstock as raw material in fuel pellet production into the slaughterhouse water heating energy privation. Now she works as an environmental engineer and occupational health and safety specialist in a consulting company in Ankara, Turkey.

  • Graphic Era Deemed to Be University, India
  • Title:A Systematic Review of Agricultural Policies in Terms of Drivers, Enablers, and Bottlenecks: Comparison of Three Indian States and a Model Bio-energy Village Located in Different Agro Climatic Regions
  • Time :04:55 - 05:20 PM

Abstract
Agricultural policies play a crucial part in any economy, Sustainable agriculture policy ensure food safety and socio-economic development but also vary considerably across the various regions of the world, A comparative policy analysis helps to determine various positive and negative factors which can help and promote the implementation of sustainable agriculture policies for future. This article compares three Indian states and one German bio village in terms of their policy. This study uses a systematic literature review of 72 published Journal articles indexed in reputed databases to first identify the key drivers, enablers, and bottlenecks and subsequently, in terms of these, compares agricultural policies of the three best performing states in India (Punjab, Gujarat, Sikkim) and bio-village Juhnde (Germany). NVivo software is used for the content analysis to check the word frequency and relevancy of the research done, ranking of these states, and bio-village extends key takeaway for crafting effective and efficient agricultural policies that can be replicated in other regions. Indian states of Punjab and Gujarat are still lagging in terms of sustainable agricultural policies, exploitation of natural resources is the main concern in both the two states, issues such as low groundwater table and excessive use of chemical fertilizers are still the main bottlenecks for Punjab and Gujarat province. Secondly, the Indian north-eastern state Sikkim has shown the world how the best policies can promote socioeconomic development in any region, the state government of Sikkim has worked as an enabler for the agriculture sector. Germany’s first bio village has paved the way to the other German villages, Juhnde village has set an example for other villages and provinces to install bioenergy plants.

Biography
Dr. Sushant Tomar holds Masters in Business admininsration degree in Marketing and Retail, currently a research scholar pursuing Ph.D. in Organic farming policies in context to value chain development from Graphic Era (Deemed to be University) Dehradun, India. He is having more than 5 years of corporate experince in different verticals of sales and marketing, his core area of speicalisation is business development and project consultancy, currently he is working on the project with NABARD for upliftment of the rural organic farmers.

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