- Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Russia.
- Title:Subcritical nuclear reactor driven by ion beams
- Time :
The performance of subcritical nuclear reactors driven by proton and ion beams (accelerator driven system- ADS) is analyzed and the advantage of ion beams is substantiated. The conditions which maximize the power production and the energy gain G (defined as the ratio of the power produced to the power spent for the beam acceleration), ensuring in the same time a safe exploitation are identified.
With a proper choice of the target G of 20-30 can be obtained.
The particle fluence and the energy released are obtained through simulation with Geant4. The power spent to accelerate the beam is calculated by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for a reference particle.
Cylindrical targets with rods of solid fuel (metallic alloy, oxide, carbide) in a bath of coolant are considered. The most significant influence on the energy released demonstrates the material used for the converter. The use of light materials increases the energy released especially for light ions at low energy. The best results are obtained with Be converter with length 100-120 cm.
The value of the criticality coefficient keff must be chosen as high as possible to maximize the power produced, but low enough to ensure a safe functioning of the reactor. The reactivity changes during various accident scenarios were analyzed in order to identify possible positive reactivity insertions. A value of 0.985 for keff ensures enough safety margin.
The results obtained with protons and ions beams from deuteron to 20Ne and energies from
0.2 to 2 AGeV, accelerated in a linac and interacting in U-Pu-Zr target with Be converter and keff 0.985 are presented. The beam intensity is 1.25‧1016, and the linac efficiency 0.18 for protons (values taken from the European Spallation Source project).
The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV, with a G of 10 and net power Pnet of 150 MW. G 2-3 times higher can be realized with ion beams. With a beam of 7Li with energy 0.25 AGeV one gets the same Pnet but with G of 18, and necessitates an accelerator 2.6 times shorter. At intermediate accelerator length beams of Li or Be are the best option (G 20-25, Pnet 350-400 MW). In an accelerator with the same length as for 1.5 GeV proton it is preferable to accelerate ions with higher mass (12C, 16O, 20Ne) getting a G~ 30 and Pnet~1 GW.
Mihaela Paraipan has completed her PhD from Politechnica University Bucharest, Romania.
She is working in present as senior researcher at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna , and she has more than 20 articles in peer reviewed journals.
- Ryerson University ,Canada
- Title:Application of Bioremediation in Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering
- Time :
Bioremediation has been applying in both geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering since few decades ago. While bioremediation has been using to prevent erosion and slope stabilization in geotechnical engineering, bioremediation process has been successfully using in remediation of contaminated lands. Bioremediation is using living things to eliminate or reduce environmental contamination such as contaminated soils or groundwater. Some microorganisms are able to change these chemicals into harmless stage. These microorganisms that live in soil and groundwater naturally consume certain chemicals that are harmful to people and the environment. Plants such as vegetations can also be used to clean up soil, water, or air; this process is called phytoremediation. As the large numbers of organic contaminants can be degraded by micro-organism and most biological treatments attempt to optimize conditions for degradation by the naturally occurring indigenous microbial population. Biological degradation processes can be either in situ or ex situ and aerobic or anaerobic (Wood 1991). Most methods of bioremediation involve supply of oxygen, foods and nutrients required by the micro-organism. This lecture present two selected bioremediation methods which were invented to use in geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental engineering. The one developed to use in geotechnical engineering is Soil Nail and Root System in which a long root grass is used to stabilize surficial slip of soil mass in conjunction with nail system which was used for stabilizing deep slip. In this process, grass roots provide reinforcement strength to the soil mass within the shallow zone in addition to the additional strength provided from suction activity of root system. This has long been used in Ontario, Canada to stabilize steep slopes along the rivers. Second one is in trial stage in which petrochemical contaminated soil was remediated using the micro-organism which eat diesel naturally. These specific micro-organisms which could consume more petroleum hydrocarbons were bred in the contaminated soil to eliminate the contamination in the soil. Their travelling speed and distances were enhanced by applying electrokinetic flow which carry them to further distance Hassan et.al (2016). In addition, foods and nutrients required by them were transported with the help of electrokinetic flow.
Myint Win BO is a President / Chief Executive Officer in Bo & Associates Inc. Canada. He graduated with B.Sc (Geology) from the University of Rangoon and received Postgraduate Diploma in Hydrogeology from University College London, UK and MSc Degree from University of London, UK. He obtained his Ph.D in Civil Engineering (specialized in geotechnics) from the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and obtained Certificate of Executive Management and Leadership from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. He is a Fellow of the Geological Society, London, UK and a Fellow of Institution of Civil Engineer, UK. He is also a professional engineer, professional geoscientist, International Professional Engineer (UK), Chartered Geologist, Chartered Scientist, Chartered Engineer, Chartered Environmentalist, Chartered Manager, European Geologist and European Engineer. Dr Bo has been serving many professional societies in both national and international levels. Dr Bo has been working in four continents around the world such as North America, Europe, The Far East and Pacific. Dr Bo is an experience practicing engineer, geologist, environmentalist, scientist and entrepreneur as well as an educator and he has given more than 40 special/Keynote lectures and workshops in the international conferences, tertiary institutions and professional associations. Dr Bo is also an Adjunct Professor in York University and Ryerson University, Canada as well as Adjunct Professor in Swinburne University of Technology in Australia. He has published Four Textbooks, Five book chapters, 200 over technical papers in International Journals and conferences. Dr Bo is an Editor for five International Journals including Environmental Geotechnics Journal and Geotechnical Research journal published by Institution of Engineers, UK. His works were cited by more than 4500 times in the referred journals and proceedings. Dr Bo is a winner of more than $ one million research grants and winner of many awards for personal achievements as well as designing many award winning projects around the world.
- Lappeenranta, Finland
- Title:Use of Real Options to Enhance Eater-energy Nexus in Mine Tailings Management
- Time :
Mine tailings are waste obtained after processing mineral ore to acquire element(s) of interest. They are a mixture of ground rocks with process effluents. The largest water sink at most mines is the tailing storage facility and inappropriate management of water content in mine tailings can become a threat to its stability, and consequently, its environmental safety. Also, for reasons pertaining to water scarcity, water reuse and recycling is a plausible option to mining companies. Proper handling of mine tailings and water supply management can considerably improve the water-energy nexus. In this article, we evaluate the water-energy nexus in copper mining companies using a water reduction model focused on mine tailing facilities and water supply to the mine site to find the trade-offs between water and energy. To find out about the economic outcomes of the options covered by the analysis, project valuation techniques with a real options approach are used. This approach deploys Monte Carlo simulation to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to evaluate every cost component of each water management strategy. Results show that where seawater is supplied to the mine site, improving the reuse of water by using dewatering technologies will improve the water-energy nexus. Even though the costs of these technologies are elevated in comparison to traditional disposal method because they are energy-intensive, the reduction of water requirements in the mine will reduce the cost of its treatment and transport which accounts for a large proportion of the total cost.
Natalia Araya has a PhD in Mineral Processing Engineering from Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile and she is a doctoral student in Industrial Engineering and Management program at LUT University in Lappeenranta, Finland under a double degree agreement between both Universities. Her topic is on mine tailings water management for a sustainable mining industry. Her research interests are mine tailings management and valorization, water management in mining, sustainable development in mining, circular economy in mining.
- Institute for Environmental Research São Paulo, Brazil.
- Title:Native Species are at Risk by the Metal Deposition in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.
- Time :
Trace metals adsorbed to particulate matter are supposed to be increasingly incorporated into the remnants of the Atlantic Forest next to urban, industrial, agricultural and mining sources of air pollution, especially in the Southeastern Brazil. They can be retained on tree canopies through dry and wet deposition and incorporated directly into the soil by deposition or indirectly by litterfall and decomposition. Some native tree species are better suited than others to offer a realistic overview of metal accumulation in a forest ecosystem due to their higher accumulating capacity within or on their leaf tissues. To assess the capacity of trees in different successional stages to accumulate metals, we conducted a passive biomonitoring with pioneer (P) and non-pioneer (NP) species, soil and litter in two fragments of rain forest located in São Paulo – Brazil (PP-peri-urban) and (PEFI-urban). We sampled leaves of trees, soil and litter in both sites, during the winter of 2015, and analyzed the concentrations of metals by ICP-OES. In general, NP species have higher leaf concentrations of most of the elements and higher mobility ratios for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher in NP plants than in P species in both sites. Mn concentrations were stocked in litter and could be associated to the low bioavailability of this element caused by the effect of the metals to the decomposing organisms. These results allowed us to conclude that NP species were more susceptible to the metal contamination, since the concentrations of the elements studied were higher than in P species. Even though PP site is located far from the urban emissions, the deposition of metals also impacts the site.
Ricardo Keiichi Nakazato is graduated in Biological Sciences from Universidade São Judas (2008), Ph.D. in Plant Biodiversity and Environment from São Paulo Institute of Botany (2014), post-doctorate fellow in Plant Biodiversity from Instituto de Botânica (2016), post-doctorate fellow in progress, by the Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais (2021), specialization in Sustainability and Environment by the Fundação Getúlio Vargas (tbd). Ricardo is dedicated to researching the impact of heavy metals and other atmospheric pollutants on native species of the Atlantic Forest by biomonitoring.
- Wageningen University, Netherland
- Title:Sustainability for Drinking Water Reservoirs: Central Softening and Floating Solar panels
- Time :
Drinking water utilities in the Netherlands aim to reduce the CO2 footprint in order to become CO2 neutral in the coming years. A preferred route to achieve this is by reducing the CO2 footprint in the primary drinking water production processes. This can be done by using more sustainable chemicals, recycling residual/waste streams and by modifying the production process, for example by applying central softening.
We recently published a paper in which we demonstrate that central softening in drinking water production leads to a net reduction of the carbon footprint. The full life cycle assessment shows that the detrimental contributions to the carbon footprint, due to the use of chemicals and energy for central softening, are outweighed by the beneficial contributions at the household level, where reduced scaling leads to prolonged lifespan of appliances, reduced energy consumption and reduced use of cleaning agents. We estimate that the net total carbon footprint of drinking water softening in the Netherlands is around -0.11 Mtons CO2 equivalent per year.
Nevertheless, CO2 neutrality cannot be achieved by only focusing on reduced emissions in the primary production processes. Part of the CO2 footprint reduction needs to come from compensation, one way to achieve this is by employing floating solar panels. However, little is known on the effects of floating solar at large scale on water quality and ecology. We therefore designed a floating solar pilot and installed this on one of the water reservoirs (depth <4m) at Evides Water Company, a company based in the south of the Netherlands. Evides relies mostly on surface water for the production of drinking water, and river water is stored in large reservoirs. Several quality parameters have been monitored over multiple years, which include: 1) physico-chemical (oxygen, temperature, organic carbon, heavy metals, etc.), 2) microbiological (fecal bacteria) and 3) (hydro)biological (birds, water plants, plankton. Biography
Bert van der Wal currently leads the R&D team for drinking water production at Evides Water Company and is professor at Wageningen University (NL), specialized in sustainable (drinking) water production with focus on membrane filtration, capacitive deionization (CapDI) for water softening and desalination, removal of organic micropolltants and sand and biological activated carbon filtration. He obtained a PhD in Physical Chemistry and Microbiology.
- University of Girona, Spain
- Title:Feasibility of Vertical Ecosystem for Sustainable Water Treatment and Reuse in Touristic Resorts
- Time :
Water scarcity is one of the biggest threats of the climate change, specially in mediterranian region. The higher the temperatures the lower the rainfall and the effects of water scarcity are already a problem. More over, the biggest economic sector in mediterranean region is toursim and has a high water footprint, between 3 and 5 times higher than local hauses.
Circular economy practices apllied in hotels could help in facing the water scarcity. It consists in treating the water in the same hotel for their reutilization (decentralized systems). There are several option to apply circular economy of water in hotels. One of them is vertECO a nature based solution that has been demonstrated technically and economically feasible to aply in hotels.
The treated water meets with all the europaean legislation for treated water reuse and the pay back period for a hotel of 440 rooms is 5 years if the water price is 3 € per cubic meter. If we consider also co benefits the pay back period is even lower.
Born in Mallorca and aware of all environmental problems I decided to study environmental science in Girona. During my degree I had the pleasure of being part of LEQUIA a research group focused on water treatment. One finished my degree I decided to improve my aknowledge about the science of water. During my master thesis in ICRA I got in contact with Alchemia Nova Gmb H a company from Austria focused on nature based solutions to solve environmental problems. My key role in Alchemia was to study more in detail the performance of vertECO technology and investigate about their costs and benefits. At the same time that I worked in Alchemia I also worked at Green Building Management as a sustainability consulter facused on a building sector. On April 2021 I left behind these two jobs to join Cushman and Wakefield, a Real State advisory company. My role in Cushman and Wakefils is to help our clients, some of the biggest real state owners in the world, in applying sustainability in their assets.
- National University of Central Peru. Peru
- Title:Heavy Metals in Soils and Edible Tissues of Lepidium Meyenii (maca) and Health Risk Assessment in Areas Influenced by Mining Activity in the Central Region of Peru
- Time :
Heavy metal contamination of soil and agricultural products is an environmental problem, has an adverse effect on the quality of food crops, and is a danger to food security and public health. The concentration of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in surface soils and edible hypocotyls tissues of two ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) was evaluated in three districts of the Junín province, Peru. In addition, the risk to human health due to exposure to heavy metals from maca consumption was evaluated. Soil samples and maca hypocotyls were collected in areas influenced by mining and metallurgical activity. The mean concentration of Cd (0.32±0.23 mg/kg) and Pb (0.20±0.12 mg/kg) in maca samples exceeded the values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. The bioconcentration factor was less than
1. The estimated daily intake of each metal was below the oral reference dose. The hazard quotient and hazard index were less than 1, it is unlikely to cause non-cancer adverse health outcome. The cancer risk for As and Cd was higher than the tolerable limit (1×10-6) in children and adults. In the district of Ondores, the cancer risk for As in children was higher than the acceptable limit (1×10-4). Residents of the Ondores district would be more exposed to As and Cd from consumption of maca hypocotyls. It is very important to carry out continuous monitoring of other toxic metals in different ecotypes of maca (red, black, yellow, purple, creamy white, pink) in order to evaluate the variation in the accumulation of heavy metals and the level of toxicity of each metal between ecotypes.
I am professor in the Area of Biodiversity and Forest Management at the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at the Universidad Nacional del Centro del Peru. My areas of interest are environmental pollution, risk of toxics in the environment and biodiversity.
- Kyushu University, Japan
- Title:Water Management for Improvement of Rice Yield, Appearance Quality and Palatability with High Temperature During Ripening Period
- Time :
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the world’s most important food crops and is a staple food in Japan. In recent years, decreased yield and deterioration of appearance quality and palatability due to abnormally high temperatures during the ripening period have become serious problems for rice farmers in Japan. To clarify the optimal water management in large-scale fields under high temperatures at the ripening period, effective water management during this period for improvement of yield, appearance quality and palatability were investigated. Compared with intermittent irrigation and flooded irrigation, the soil temperature with saturated irrigation remained low throughout the day, and the decrease rate of the bleeding rate of hills was the lowest. These results suggested that the saturated irrigation maintained root activity. For the three irrigation types, the number of spikelets per m2 and 1000-grain weight were similar, however, saturated irrigation resulted in significantly higher rice yield due to improvement in the percentage of ripened grains. The saturated irrigation produced a high percentage of perfect rice grains and thicker brown rice grain, furthermore, the palatability of cooked rice was excellent because protein content and hardness/adhesion ratio were both low. Thus, under high-temperature ripening conditions, soil temperature was lowered and root activity was maintained when applying saturated irrigation after heading time. The results indicated that saturated irrigation is an effective countermeasure against high-temperature ripening damage.
Education Received: Graduated from Tottori University graduate school master’s course in 1978, Ph.D. in Agriculture, Tottori University, March, 1993. Business Careers: General director of the Fukuoka Agriculture Research Center, Kyushu University (Professor) and Global Innovation Center, Kyushu University, The president of Japanese Society for Rice Quality and Palatability. Specialized field: Rice Agronomy and Breeding, Palatability and physicochemical properties of rice, Genetic analysis on palatability and physicochemical properties of rice. Publications：Matsue Yuji 2012. Rice palatability science from the viewpoint of crop production. Yokendo, Tokyo, Matsue Yuji ed. 2018. Appearance quality and palatability of rice -Latest research and improvement techniques-. Yokendo, Tokyo. Awards: Tianjin International Science and Technology Cooperation Award, 2010, Japan Prize of Agricultural Science, 2012.
- Al-Azhar University, Egypt
- Title:Developing a Novel Solar-Driven Cool Pavement toImprovethe Urban Microclimate
- Time :
The thermal properties of pavement play a significant role in raising urban temperatures and creating urban heat islands (UHI). This phenomenon leads to increased energy consumption in buildings and reduces the thermal comfort of outdoor urban spaces. A standard modest application of thermoelectricity has been limited to indoor use to cool or heat buildings and outdoor use to harvest energy from asphalt. While the application of thermoelectric technology to cool the outdoor environment is rare, a novel solar-driven pavement thermoelectric system (SDPTES) has been developed to use solar energy in combination with rainwater and/or graywater to decrease the outdoor ambient air temperature and improve the urban microclimate. An SDPTES prototype was fabricated to verify the cooling capacity based on outdoor tests in the hot climate of Cairo. The study found that the application of SDPTES led to a reduction in pavement surface temperature of 14.1° C compared to conventional concrete mosaic pavement. These results represent a starting point for the development and application of thermoelectric paving technology for outdoor cooling purposes.
Bachelor’s degree in Engineering, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, May 2001
Master’s degree in Architectural Engineering, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, 06/28/2006.
Doctor of Philosophy degree in Architectural Engineering and Urban Design, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, 17/3/2010.
Appointed as a teaching assistant in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering – Al-Azhar University, on 24/6/2006.
Appointment to the post of Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering – Al-Azhar University on August 22, 2006.
Appointment as a teacher in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering – Al-Azhar University on 2/6/2010.
Appointment as an assistant professor in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering – Al-Azhar University on November 28, 2015
Publishing more than 25 scientific papers in international, regional, Arab and local journals, conferences and symposia.
Member of the Egyptian Syndicate of Engineers (membership number 4561/15).
Member of the Federation of Arab Engineers (membership number 79981/16).
Member of the Egyptian Association of Architects (Associate Member) Egy 78.10.AZ 10.2.335142.335 ASM
Member of the work team from 2010 to 2017 in the Quality Assurance Unit, accreditation, at the Faculty of Engineering in Cairo – Al-Azhar University.
Member of the Quality and Training Committees, Department of Architecture, on behalf of the Committee on Society and Environment (Labour Market) on 1/2/2021.
Expert in towns and villages planning in the General Authority for Urban Planning.
Associate member of the Egyptian Society of Engineers.
Architectural design consultant first degree in the Arabian Gulf
Arbitrator in the arbitration committees of the promotion committees of the Supreme Council for the Promotion of Teachers in Taif University – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
International Arbitrator at Elsavier Publishing House for the Community and Sustainable Cities Journal
- University of Missouri-Kansas City, United States
- Title:Heat Transfer Enhancement and Optimization Analysis of Energy Storage Based Solar Thermal Collector
- Time :
The application of solar water heating systems (SWHs) has attracted many attentions in recent years. The main component of a SWH system is the solar collector, and among various types of solar collectors, heat pipe evacuated tube solar collectors (HPETCs) are widely used. However, due to the intermittency in solar intensity, the HPETCs may not work at their maximum functionality. In this study, performance optimization of an HPETC integrated with phase change materials (PCMs), is investigated under normal and on-demand (stagnation) operations via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. In phase-I, the effect of heat pipe position on the overall performance of the collector is investigated. The results from phase-I show that the phase change process of PCM was expedited by 48 minutes under on-demand operation, for the collector with heat pipe in center, compared with conventional system (heat pipe at top), where in normal operation, the thermal energy storage enhancement is achieved, for the collector with heat pipe in center, by 24% increase in PCM’s melting fraction . In phase-II, the effect of various types of PCMs are investigated, where tritriacontane paraffin, xylitol, and erythritol are selected. In normal mode, the maximum exhibited total energy storage of 295.39 kJ/kg was acheived for paraffin tube, however, the fin temperature of xylitol tube was around 10 °C higher compared with the other tubes throughout the day. In on-demand operation, the maximum energy storage of 413.15 kJ/kg was achived for erythritol tube, however, the paraffin tube shows fin temperature difference of 14 °C compared with other tubes. Consequently, utilization of dual PCM of paraffin/xylitol in normal and paraffin/erythritol in on-demand operations is recommended to enhance system’s thermal performance. The results from this study can be a benchmark for further optimization of HPETCs in thermal energy storage systems.
Dr. Sarvenaz Sobhansarbandi is an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and director of Advanced Renewable/Thermal Energy (ART-E) laboratory at University of Missouri-Kansas city in United Staes. Her research interests include renewable energy, solar energy and computational fluid dynamics focusing on energy analysis of solar thermal collectors. She is also interested in Hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology with application in stationary and portable power generation systems. Dr. Sobhansarbandi has gained several years of research experience in the broad area of Thermo-Fluids, particularly solar energy technology and thermal energy storage materials. She had exposure to design/modeling of technical issues both by simulation and in real field-testing. She is the recipient of Funding for Excellence (FFE) award, ASME 2017 best paper award and ASHRAE 2015-2016 award from North Texas section.
- University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
- Title:Holistic Electrification vs Deep Energy Retrofits for Optimal Decarbonisation Pathways of UK Dwellings: A Case Study of the 1940s’ British Post-war
- Time :
An increasing interest rises in assessing building electrification pathways under the constraints of grid stability, costs, and carbon. Meanwhile, Deep energy retrofitting (DER) has been recognised as a pivotal strategy towards building decarbonisation, offering tremendous benefits in reducing energy consumption, tackling climate change, and enhancing residents’ comfort and well-being. However, hurdles for the massive market uptake of DER exist with relatively low cost-effectiveness, limited retrofit funding/government incentives and low end-user motivations. This paper adopts a holistic approach to evaluate and compare two retrofit strategies: Holistic-decarbonised Electrification Retrofit (HER) VS DER from the perspectives of costs, carbon, grid stability and overheating potentials. A 1940s British post-war dwelling with initial energy consumption of 396.6 kWh/m2 is chosen as the case study to perform the analysis. This research also brings forward three load shifting strategies (i.e. fabric thermal insulation, renewables and battery storage) and investigates their impacts on enhancing grid stability/security. Results reveal that adopting the HER strategy can reduce lifetime carbon emissions up to 99%, higher than that from the DER strategy (i.e. 78%). Given the financial constraints, the HER strategy is more attractive than the DER strategy, with an initial investment of £184/m2 and a payback period of 14 years.
Dr Ke Qu is a researcher in Building Energy & Environment (BEE) research group, University of Nottingham. His research forcuses on addresing sustainable retrofit technologies, holistic building electrification retrofit strategies and building retrofit numerical modelling methods, providing affordable and rapid retrofit solutions for the pathway to the residential building decarbonisation in 2050. In this conference, he will give a speech about the comparasion between holistic electrification retrofit and deep energy retrofit for optimal decarbonisation pathways of UK dwellings, with demonstration of a case study for the 1940s’ British post-war.
- University of Delhi, India
- Title:The Use of Green nanotechnology for Human Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549 cells) and High Performance Supercapacitor Applications.
- Time :
In this paper, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized using extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem tree), Ficus benghalensis (banyan tree) and Tabernaemontana divericata (Chameli). These green synthesized NPs have been studied for anticancer and supercapacitor applications. The synthesized NPs have been characterized using various techniques such as UV–Visible spectroscopy, FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The green synthesized nanoparticles with Azadirachta indica have been used to investigate the cell viability of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells) using MTT assay. Herein, a comparative anticancer study has been performed using only leaves extract of Azadirachta indica, ZnO NPs synthesized with leaves extract of Azadirachta indica and chemical-wet method respectively. The viability of lung cancer cell lines (A549) decreases significantly with ZnO NPs synthesized with leaves extract as compare to only extract (OE) of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem tree). The cell viability does not changes with concentration of ZnO NPs synthesized with chemical wet method. So, the ZnO NPs synthesized with chemical-wet method has been used as a control for this anticancer activity. The cell viability also decreases with an incubation period of 48 h at the concentration (100, 150, 200 and 250 µg/mL) of ZnO NPs. The IC50 value for zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared with 1 mL of leaves extract (L1-NPs) has been obtained 138.50µg/mL at 48 h incubation. Herein, the flow cytometry study has also been performed. The ZnO NPs synthesized with leaves extract of Ficus benghalensis (banyan tree) and Tabernaemontana divericata (Chameli) have been studied for supercapacitor applications. The specific capacitance (Cs) has been determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Herein, the calculated values of speciﬁc capacitance for ZnO NPs synthesized with Ficus benghalensis (banyan tree) are 6.318 F g-1 at 20 mV/s, 4.363 F g-1 at 40 mV/s, 3.611 F g-1 at 60 mV/s, 3.222 F g-1 at 80 mV/s and 2.972 F g-1 at 100 mV/s respectively. Similarly, the specific capacitance have been calculated using glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which has been drop casted by ZnO NPs synthesized with Tabernaemontana divericata. Herein, the calculated values of specific capacitance are 535.7142 F g-1, 401.7857 F g-1, 304.7619 F g-1, 229.9107 F g-1 and 189.2857 F g-1 respectively. Herein, the highest energy density and power density have also been determined 36.4583Wh/kg and 65.6249W/kg respectively at 20 mV/s. Whereas, the values of highest energy density varies in the range from 1.0620 Wh/kg to 0.4996 Wh/kg for ZnO NPs synthesized with Ficus benghalensis. It means, the ZnO NPs synthesized with Tabernaemontana divericata can be used as an electrode material for high performance supercapacitors and ZnO NPs synthesized with leaves extract of Azadirachta indica can be used as nanomedicine for lung cancer.
- University of Oslo, Norway
- Title:Traditional Shade Coffee Forest Systems act as Refuges for Medium- and Large-sized ,Mammals as Natural Forest Dwindles in Ethiopia.
- Time :
Ethiopian shade coffee plantations are well documented to be bird-friendly and act as refuges for disappearing tree species. The extent to which these plantations support mammal conservation, as well as mammal sensitivity to coffee intensification, remain little studied. We studied the distribution and diversity of mammals under three coffee management systems of differing intensities (i.e., semi-forest, semi-plantation, and plantation) and in nearby natural forests in Belete-Gera Forest Priority Area, southwestern Ethiopia. We detected mammals using 30 infrared camera traps at 90 stations for a total of 4142 camera days. We used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index for diversity analysis, generalized linear mixed model for comparison of independent detection, and non-metric multidimensional scaling to show the mammalian community composition. We recorded 8815 digital videos and a total of 23 mammal species. The overall species richness, diversity, and detection of mammals did not differ between the two traditional shade coffee management systems and the natural forest but was lower in the plantation coffee system. The mammal community composition also shows variation in resilience to coffee management intensity, with primates appearing to be generally more tolerant to management intensification. We ultimately show that traditionally managed Ethiopian shade coffee farms shelter diverse mammal communities, comparable to those in nearby natural forests. Therefore, supporting traditional coffee management practices and certifying them as mammal-friendly should be implemented as strategies for the conservation of mammals, as natural forests continue to decline in Ethiopia.
Behailu Etana is a PhD candidate at the Department of Biosciences, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway. Behailu is also assistance professor at the department of Natural Resources Management, Jimma University, Ethiopia. Behailu’s area of expertise include Conservation Biology, Wildlife Ecology, Community Ecology, Behavioural Ecology and Ethnobotany. Currently he is working on shade coffee projects. He published research articles in reputable international journals.
- University of Tennessee, USA
- Title:Natural and Man-Made Sources of Radiation
- Time :
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) have been present throughout the universe since its creation, about 14 billion years ago, and on Earth for approximately 4.5 billion years. Radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium, radium, radon, carbon, beryllium, potassium, in conjunction with cosmic sources typically contribute about 1.5 to 35 mSv/yr of radiation dose to humans, but in some locations natural environmental processes have concentrated these materials such that annual doses are over 10 times the typical values.
Nuclear reactors and accelerators are used to produce radioactive materials for medicine, industry, agriculture, and research. The choice of using a reactor or accelerator in production of isotopes is due in large part to the type of radiation desired. In order to produce an isotope that decays by emission of a beta particle, irradiation by neutrons would typically be employed. If positron emission is preferred, then irradiation with protons would be utilized.
More than 80% of medical imaging for diagnosis of diseases such as cancer makes use of the isotope technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which is the decay product of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) which is produced in research reactors. The diagnostic tool of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) makes use of isotopes that emit positrons, which are produced by irradiating materials with protons.
Medical sources of exposure are most often related to diagnostic or therapeutic uses of x-rays. Patient exposures are necessary to obtain information that aid in diagnosis of many medical problems or to treat cancer. At the same time, reducing dose to the patient is critical as it helps in minimizing risks of cancer or other radiological health effects. Although reducing patient dose is important, image quality must be acceptable in order to reduce the need for repeating studies. Poor image quality not only leads to repeat imaging studies, but it can also potentially lead to a misdiagnosis in patients.
Nuclear weapons generated about 150 radionuclides that were released into the environment, many having short half-lives. Out of these about 20 radionuclides are of radiological importance. Weapons testing took place in remote locations, at least 100 km from populated areas (continental deserts, isolated islands in oceans), to minimize potential exposures. The activity of radionuclides released from nuclear weapons tests were much larger than the activities resulting from nuclear reactor accidents, such as the Chernobyl accident in 1986.
In addition to medical and scientific benefits derived from the use of radiation, power produced by nuclear fission contributes about 19 % to the electrical energy in the US. Natural gas contributes about 37 %, coal 24 %, wind 7 %, and solar 7 %. Other sources, such as oil and geothermal each contribute less than 1 % each. Energy by fission in the US during 2019 would have displaced about 800 million tons of CO2 if it had been produced by anthracite coal and about 400 million tons of CO2 if it had been produced by natural gas.
Michael Howard, Ph.D., DABMP (Mhowar14@vols.utk.edu, Michael.Howard@tennova.com)
Is a board certified medical physicist. Has worked clinically for 25 years and has served on and chaired numerous AAPM committees. In addition, is an ASTRO surveyor for oncology practice accreditation. He is currently service as Medical Physics Program Director at the University of Tennessee.
- Vidyasagar University, India
- Title:Investigation of Alpha Radioactivity levels in Commonly used Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers by using CR-39 SSNTDs
- Time :
Fertilizers are usually applied in agricultural fields to yield plant’s products such as crops, fruits and vegetables. All fertilizers consist of many essential plant’s nutritional elements which support to the plant’s growth and increases the plant’s products. Some non-essential elements like radionuclides that present in fertilizers can transport along with plant’s nutrients to the plants and their products during their growing period. The radionuclides in edible plant’s products can be transported to consumers through ingestion pathway. Generally, the high density of internal exposure to radionuclides, mainly alpha-particles emitters, can lead to induce many health hazards problems (malignant and non-malignant) in human body. In the present study, a track-etch method using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) has been used to measure the alpha radioactivity level in some organic and inorganic fertilizers. The dried and powdered form of fertilizers samples have been taken for such measurements. Estimation of calibration factor (CF) for a SSNTD is a part of this method. The CF for CR-39 SSNTDs is estimated in the present study by using a distributed reference source material of IAEA-448 soil. In estimating CF, the self-absorption of alpha particles within this reference soil material has been considered. Different sample masses of IAEA-448 soil have been taken for the CF estimation. The variation of CF with sample mass is showing a straight line. Equation obtained from the linear fit of this variation has been used to evaluate the CF for a particular sample mass, and then the evaluated CF has been used for measuring the alpha radioactivity of the fertilizers samples. It is evident from the results of measured radioactivity that the alpha radioactivity of inorganic phosphatic fertilizers (range 495.42 to 1148.62 Bq.〖kg〗^(-1)) is relatively high rather than both organic fertilizers (range 29.55 to 116.19 Bq.〖kg〗^(-1)) and inorganic non-phosphatic fertilizers (range 2.26 to 10.71 Bq.〖kg〗^(-1)). Results indicate the extensive use of phosphatic fertilizers can significantly enhance the radioactivity contamination levels in the agricultural plant’s products and also the surrounding environments of agricultural fields. The CFs evaluation technique and experimental method may be applied in the alpha radioactivity measurements in other solid and powdered form materials including environmental and biological materials. The novelty of the present research work relies on the CF evaluation technique for CR-39 SSNTDs, and the radioactivity data can be useful as a good baseline for alpha-radiation exposure to fertilizers.
Biswajit Das was born and raised in Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal state in India. He received a Bachelor’s degree (B. Sc.) in Physics in 2000 from Midnapore College under Vidyasagar University, India, and a Master’s degree (M. Sc.) in Physics with specialization in Nuclear Physics and Cosmic Rays in 2002 from Jadavpur University, India. He served as Assistant Teacher in Physics from 2002 – 2005 in two different schools in two districts of Purba Medinipur and Paschim Medinipur of West Bengal state. Then, he served as Assistant Professor and Head of the Department of Physics from 2005 – 2015 in Sitananda College of Purba Medinipur district and from 2015 – 2016 in Bhatter Collge Dantan of Pschim Medinipur district of this state. Presently, Biswajit Das is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics at Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal state of India since July 2016. He is also pursuing Ph. D. degree at the Jadavpur University, India. His research area is environmental radioactivity and health effects associated to radioactivity. He participated in several national and international conferences, seminars and workshops. He has seven scientific research articles published in peer-reviewed journals in national and international reputes. He presented six research works in different conferences, seminars and workshops. Currently, he evaluated the calibration factor for CR-39 track detector for alpha radioactivity measurement in natural water. His research publications in 2021 are “Radon induced health effects: A survey report”, “Theoretical evaluation of calibration factor for CR-39 track detector for alpha radioactivity measurement in natural water”, and “Scenario of radon alpha activity level in natural drinking waters of different regions of eastern part of India: A review report”.
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Iran
- Title:GIS-based Ensemble Computational Models for Flood Susceptibility Prediction in the Quang Binh Province, Vietnam
- Time :
Recently, floods are occurring more frequently every year around the world due to increased anthropogenic activities and climate change. There is a need to develop accurate models for flood susceptibility prediction and mapping, which can be helpful in developing more efficient flood management plans. In this study, the Partial Decision Tree (PART) classifier and the AdaBoost, Bagging, Dagging, and Random Subspace ensembles learning techniques were combined to develop novel GIS-based ensemble computational models (ABPART, BPART, DPART and RSSPART) for flood susceptibility mapping in the Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. In total, 351 flood locations were used in the model study. This data was divided into a 70:30 ratio for model training (70% ≅ 255 locations) and (30% ≅ 96 locations) for model validation. Ten flood influencing factors, namely elevation, slope, curvature, flow direction, flow accumulation, river density, distance from river, rainfall, land-use, and geology, were used for the development of models. The OneR feature selection method was used to select and prioritize important factors for the spatial modeling. The results revealed that land-use, geology, and slope are the most important conditioning factors in the occurrence of floods in the study area. Standard statistical methods, including the ROC curve (AUC), were used for the performance evaluation of models. Results indicated that the performance of all models was good (AUC > 0.9) and RSSPART (AUC = 0.959) outperformed the others. Thus, the RSSPART model can be used for accurately predicting and mapping flood susceptibility.
My name is Mahdis Amiri, I’m 27 years old, also my date of birth is May 16, 1994, my Place of Birth is Shiraz, currently I’m PhD student at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Department of Watershed & Arid Zone Management, Gorgan, Iran. I am in the sixth semester. I hold a Bachelor and Master of Science degrees from the University of Shiraz. My majors are Natural resource, my master’s thesis title is Spatial Modeling of Gully Erosion and. I am currently working on Spatial modeling and multi-hazards. Also, I’m very interested in Spatial Modelling of Gully erosion, Landslide, Fire Forest and Flood susceptibility also groundwater potential.
Phone number: 00905541797769
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Homepage: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mahdis_Amiri
- Kyoto University, NIES; JAPAN
- Title:Long-term Nationwide Spatiotemporal Changes and Trends of Freshwater Temperature in Japan (1982–2016)
- Time :
If the present rates of biodiversity loss continue, projections suggest that within 240 years Earth may face its sixth mass extinction. Because many fishes and amphibians, as well as crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic macroinvertebrates, are ectotherms, temperature is an important component of water quality that directly affects their growth rate and distribution Freshwater temperature is a physical water quality parameter of critical importance, and understanding the trends in freshwater temperature is important for identifying potential threats to the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.
We analyzed freshwater temperature data (based on “The Water Quality Survey of Public Water Areas” of the Ministry of the Environment) from 1982 to 2016 throughout Japan to better understand how waters are warming in Japan.
We used linear regression to determine the temperature change rate and Mann-Kendall tests to identify significant temporal trends in the annual maximum and mean temperatures. Among 11,240 monitoring sites screened, 159 with fewer missing values were selected for analysis.
On the basis of this analysis, we identified and ranked the sites showing significant temporal increasing or decreasing trends for future management. At nearly half (42%) of the analyzed sites, the annual mean freshwater temperature was increasing; thus, in the future, adverse impacts from warm temperatures may increase in those aquatic ecosystems. The temperature change rate of fresh water was higher than that of air, indicating that the observed increases in freshwater temperature were not due to atmospheric warming only. Among individual sites, the annual maximum freshwater temperature change rate ranged from -1.27 to 1.91 °C/decade, and the annual mean rate ranged from -1.13 to 1.28 °C/decade. Few other studies have reported decreasing temperatures for fresh water.
We expect our results will improve understanding of how freshwater temperatures are changing at a large scale, enhance understanding of human impacts on the aquatic environment, support effective management of ecosystems experiencing temperature changes, and help to minimize the loss of biodiversity over the next half century.
(Keywords: Air temperature, Freshwater temperature, Global warming, Japan, Spatiotemporal analysis, GIS.)
Dr. Satoshi Kameyama is a Senior Chief Researcher at Biodiversity Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies; JAPAN. He is a Specially Appointed Professor at The Kyoto University (Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research) and a lecturer at The University of Tokyo (The Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Science) in 2018. He is also working as visiting lecturer at VNU (Vietnam Japan University) in Vietnam National University. He received Ph.D. degrees from The Graduate School of Agriculture from The Hokkaido University in 1999. He is an editorial board member of The Remote Sensing Society of Japan from 2011. He is also a member of American Geophysical Union, American Fisheries Society, The Ecological Society of Japan, The Japanese Alpine Club etc. The main research topics of recent years are “Evaluation of ecosystem functions and services and their sustainable use” and “Watershed ecosystem restoration based on the recovery of migration pass and diadromous fish habitat using Environmental DNA” etc. The final goal (the dream) of his research is to realize sustainable regional community with high resilience to climate change harmonizing with nature.
- Federal Technological University of Parana, Brazil
- Title:Modeling of the Dispersion of Pollutants in Porous Media: Case of a Landfill in Brazil
- Time :
Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal systems are still a sanitary and environmental problem. The high concentration of toxic substances existing in liquids arising from the decomposition of waste, present a risk to human health and the environment. It is necessary to establish mechanisms to predict leachate dispersion in order to determine possible scenarios and control systems. This work investigates the dispersion of leachate from urban solid waste through saturated soil. The municipal landfill of Jacarezinho in Brazil is the focus of the study. The conceptual model was based on existing data from geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and leachate characterization. The codes MODFLOW and MT3DMS were used and the dispersion of chromium, copper, lead and zinc was simulated. Pollutant mass concentration fields were calculated in 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years. The results indicated that the pollutants could reach the Ouro Grande River, in a period of 5 years and the tributary in a period of 1 year of the initial generation of leachate. For the final period of the simulation, the tributary of the Ouro Grande River received copper and lead concentrations that exceeded the maximum values allowed in Brazilian legislation for the watercourse quality standard. It was concluded that the Jacarezinho landfill has the potential to pollute the surrounding soil and groundwater.
He was Born in Colombia. He is an Environmental Engineer graduated from the Meta University Corporation in Colombia (2014), Specialist in Safety and Health at Work from the University of Los Llanos in Colombia (2016), obtained Master´s degree from Environmental Science and Technology from the Federal Technological University of Paraná in Brazil (2020). He has 7 years of experience as an environmental engineer in solid waste management companies and 5 years of experience as an undergraduate university professor. Since 2016 he has been a professor at the Faculty of Environmental Engineering of the Santo Tomas University in Colombia, where he has directed several final papers, most of them related to solid waste. Currently, he is a researcher at the Universidad Santo Tomás and works in the area of Green Chemistry and environmental simulation.
- CEA French Atomic Commission - Energy Division - Marcoule Center- Dismantling and Waste Conditioning Department, France
- Title:Management of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste coming from Nuclear Power Plants : Materials, Processes and Long-term Performance Assessment
- Time :
This presentation is devoted to highly radioactive nuclear waste management, all around the world. A synthesis of the high level waste (HLW) typology and key characteristics is given, showing that nuclear glass and spent nuclear fuel need to be considered for long term disposal, depending on national strategies. A rationale for selecting a relevant conditioning process is then presented, describing the parameters and constraints to take into account. A brief description of the vitrification processes, the sole industrially deployed conditioning process for HLW, is then presented. The vitrified waste interim storage strategy is described. The knowledge about the long term performance of HLW, spent nuclear fuel and nuclear glass, in geological disposal is then detailed. Finally, the development of alternative conditioning processes for HLW are briefly presented.
56 years old
PhD “Material Sciences” – Glass Science
15 years in R&D for Nuclear Waste Conditioning, especially in vitrification, cementation of effluents and solids
15 years in Projects and Teams Management
40 papers, several international collaborations, participation to many IAEA technical meetings, international
- University of Athens, Greece
- Title:Utilization of δ-Manganese Dioxide for the Removal of Indigo Carmine from Aqueous Solutions
- Time :
In recent years, water contamination has become a global concern that hinders environmental sustainability, the integrity of the aquatic ecosystems and the prosperity of human societies. Water contamination can derive from numerous sources, including industrial discharges and effluents that present high content of organic chemicals. A certain category of organic chemicals that endangers environmental sustainability is synthetic organic dyes, currently used by numerous industries, which can enter the aquatic environment due to their incomplete attachment on their substrates. Indigo Carmine, an organic water-soluble salt, is utilized by food, clothing and pharmaceutical industries, and has been linked with carcinogenesis, neurotoxicity and other severe health effects at high concentrations. Consequently, purification of water contaminated with Indigo Carmine is vital, and many methods have been applied towards that goal including oxidation, adsorption, photocatalysis and bacterial treatment. In our previous work, we have studied the removal of Indigo Carmine from aqueous solutions via adsorption onto chitosan based functional materials. However, oxidation of Indigo Carmine is also a well-established method that possesses several technical and economic advantages (i.e. reduced demands for chemical auxiliaries and reaction times). Thus, research has been focused on the evaluation of the efficacy of various oxidizing agents, with manganese oxides presenting promising results. Manganese oxides are a class of naturally occurring and ubiquitous materials that due to manganese’s ability to exist in different oxidation states can simultaneously oxidize and adsorb organic contaminants from the aquatic environment. Especially, manganese dioxide has been proven to oxidize organic chemicals by a series of one-electron transfers, which result in radicals’ formation that can either form polymeric compounds or undergo further oxidation. In particular, δ-manganese dioxide has a reduction potential of 1.23 V and is commonly found in soils, thus it is an appealing material for water decontamination. The present study aims to investigate the purification of Indigo Carmine contaminated waters by means of δ-manganese dioxide and evaluate the effect of various operating conditions (i.e. pH, concentration of Indigo Carmine and δ-manganese dioxide, and temperature) in order to assess the possibility of maintaining environmental sustainability through an eco-friendly and naturally occurring material.
Tryfon Kekes is a PhD candidate in the National Technical University of Athens in the School of Chemical Engineering. He has a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in Chemical Engineering. His research focuses primarily on drinking water treatment methods and the removal of water contaminants, such as heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs. Furthermore, his area of research and interests include the implementation of HACCP, Risk Analysis – Risk assessment and safety measures in the field of drinking water treatment.
- Kummer:Umweltkommunikation, Germany
- Title:Green Deal – Tox Free environment and the New Data Base for Substances of High Concern: How Useful is SCIP Database for Waste Management Sector?
- Time :
The European Commission had set two important goals with the 7. Environmental Action Program, the new Green Deal and Chemicals`strategy from 2020. The first is to minimize exposure to chemicals in products and promote non-toxic material cycles to ensure the health protection of EU citizens from environmental exposures and risks. The second goal envisions the transformation of the EU into a resource-efficient, green, and competitive low-carbon economy. This will be achieved through higher recycling rates and non-toxic material cycles. The Commission is working to minimize hazardous substances in products. However, if substances of concern are to be removed, it must be made clear which ones are contained at all. To ensure this knowledge, a duty to inform manufacturers of products about hazardous substances contained therein (SVHC – substance of very high concern) was introduced in the amendment of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) in 2018, which must now be implemented (starting point: January 5, 2021). In practice, however, the implementation of this information obligation proves to be difficult because, especially in the case of waste, the products contained therein are not known or not fully known and these usually also contain no reference to “pollutants” contained. Due to the large amount of data and the complexity of the database, this proves to be problematic for both producers and the recycling industry. But what data are needed in the first place to make a decision about the recyclability of contaminated waste, and what data can be expected from SCIP?
Dr. Beate Kummer, consultant, since 2005 managing director of her own consultancy Kummer:Umweltkommunikation GmbH with locations in Germany and Malta, has now around 24 years` experience in the waste management sector and all other environmental aspects, like hazardous substances and occupational health and safety. Her background includes experiences in science, consulting, lobbying, stakeholder management, education, communication and political affairs. Since 2005 she is and was also an adviser for bigger and smaller companies (one of the biggest European metal recycler) and a lot other companies (Evonik Industries AG, BASF AG etc.), working on communication, REACH, sustainability and education. Since years she is also working on the problems of the high amounts of ELVs which are leaving the European market. In 2015 she supported a TV movie which was published about the reasons of illegal export streams.When she finished her studies in Freiburg and Los Angeles 1994 with degrees in chemistry and toxicology, she joined bvse – Bundesverband Sekundärrohstoffe und Entsorgung e.V. in Bonn, first as consultant, later she became managing director. As managing director and head of the office of the environmental consultancy Haase & Naundorf Umweltconsulting GmbH in Bad Honnef between 2002 and 2005 she was responsible for key account clients. She is also working as a lecturer at the University of Leipzig. She gained her international experiences in environmental projects funded by the European Commission as a leader and on the other hand working for international companies, for which consulting, lobbying, environmental communication and political affairs are the main tasks.
- National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts & Schneider Electric, France
- Title:Control Strategy for the Combustion Optimization for Waste-to-Energy Incineration Plant
- Time :
Waste disposal is becoming more and more challenging. Indeed, global population is still increasing and countries that do not have enough space to create big landfills need to find other solutions to deal with this problem. The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), if well controlled, is a possible solution. According to Cheng and Hu (2010) * incineration can reduce the volume occupied by MSW down to 90% while producing thermal and/or electrical energy. Also, the clinker of incineration can be used in road building and the construction industry. But air pollution control remains a major problem in the implementation of incineration for solid waste disposal. Despite the long history of work in this area, the proposed control schemes of these waste-to-energy plants are quite basic. This paper presents a way to optimize such a plant by using Advanced Control techniques. The aim of this operation is to control the steam flow rate, and, therefore the energy production, while ensuring a complete combustion, which is synonym of minimal pollution emission.
My name is Franco Falconi and I am currently doing an industrial PhD with Schneider Electric and Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. I have two engineering degrees, one in Electromechanics and another in Mechatronics. My research is about identification, control, and predictive maintenance of industrial systems. I have been working with Schneider Electric for almost 3 years optimizing the energy consumption of several industrial systems. My team uses to optimize various system such as HVAC (Heating ventilation and air conditioner) units, Waste-to-energy and Biomass incinerators, various types of furnaces (thermal treatment) and Water Wastewater plants. I have two accepted papers in international conferences one in IFAC 2020 and another in MED 2021. I have also a patent with Schneider Electric for a novel control strategy that concerns time delay systems.
- National Technological University, Argentina.
- Title:An Equitative Autonomous Distributed Demand Side Management System for Peak Shaving and the Air Conditioning Trap Problem
- Time :
Climate change is currently affecting weather patterns, producing more severe storms, harsher weather, and heat waves in places never seen before. In particular, it brings the so called Air Conditioning Trap Problem: Greenhouse gases produce more heat in the atmosphere and heat waves (warmer weather in places never seen before), that gets people around the world to use their air conditioning devices more frequently. These excessive electricity consumption in turn produces more greenhouse gas, closing a vicious circle. This tendency is aggravated by the widespread use of light building materials, such as plaster of glass, that are very poor thermal insulators and require more electricity to maintain a given temperature indoors.
In this work we present an autonomous distributed artificial intelligence based on artificial immune networks, that controls the starts and stops of power-shiftable thermal devices such as Air Conditioning systems. The system is able to work on a limited number of controlled Air Conditioning devices, with only one-way communication (broadcast), respecting a maximum electricity consumption and maintaining the human thermal comfort of the occupants. This in turn allows us not only to diminish total energy consumption, but enables a more efficient use of renewable energy sources (by limiting the consumption to the energy that the source can provide, among other possibilities).
The system is an improvement over a previous work by the same authors, where the different nodes are able to distribute the energy in an equitable way without transversal communication.
Adrián Will received a degree in Mathematics from FAMAF-UNC and a Ph.D in Mathematics from the same university. He currently is the Director of the Research Group GITIA, a Research Group focused on Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and its applications, in the National Technological University (UTN), Tucumán Faculty. He is also the Director of the Specialization and Masters in Engineering of Information Systems in the same faculty. He has published articles in several national and international journals and conferences, and presented two patent applications. He is also
involved in several industrial projects dealing with Optimization of Electricity Distribution Networks, Energy Consumption Management and Human Thermal Comfort, among others.
- Brazilian Biorenewables National Laboratory, Brazil
- Title:Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Associated with Vinasse and Biochar on the Dynamics of the Microbiota and N2O Emission in Soil Under Energy Cane Cultivation
- Time :
In the face of world pressure, the Brazilian sugar-energy sector has been optimizing and using more sustainable agricultural practices. Among them is the planting of new varieties, such as energy cane, i.e., hybrids of Saccharum spp. used for biomass production, showing higher fiber and biomass content, less edaphoclimatic requirements, and more resistance to pests and diseases. In addition to the use of these new varieties, optimizing management practices that encompass the crop production cycle, such as the use of nitrogen fertilizers by the industry, is necessary for the efficiency of the system. These fertilizers are known to be responsible for N2O emissions. Plants use less than 50% of the applied fertilizer, so at least twice as much as it is necessary to be applied for crop growth and production, and what is not absorbed remains in the soil or gets lost into the atmosphere. The reuse of agro- industrial residues also is a major differential of the sugar-energy sector because it promotes cost reduction and prevents incorrect disposal. Biochar or pyrogenic coal are also possibilities besides vinasse and straw, already widespread. In this context, we will present a study that aims to propose mainly microbiological indicators as a function of energy cane response to nitrogen fertilizer doses and application of co-products from the sugar-energy industry (vinasse and biochar) to mitigate GHG of anthropogenic origin to reduce the contribution of agriculture to global warming.
Graduated in Biological Sciences at the Centro Universitário da Grande Dourados (2010), MSc in Agronomy (Soil Science) from the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2013), PhD in Agronomy (Soil Science) from the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2017), postdoctoral fellow in Agronomy (Soil Science) at the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2018), postdoctoral fellow in Agronomy (Soil Microbiology) at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRAE
– Dijon, France) (2020), with postdoctoral studies in progress in the area of Soil Sustainability at the National Biorenovables Laboratory (LNBR), Campinas, SP. She has experience in the area of Agroecology, with an emphasis on agroforestry systems, green manure, characterization of soil CO2 and N2O emissions according to soil physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes and classical and multivariate statistics.
- University of Helsinki ,Finland
- Title:Fungal pathogens Infecting Moss Green Roofs in Finland.
- Time :
Green roofs play an important role for cities in mediating some problems caused by urbanization. Mosses are ecologically important plants and capable of tolerating harsh conditions, and thus their use for greening building surfaces has become more common. There is only a little information concerning moss-associated microbes, especially those found in green roof environments. Moss-associated microbes might have significant role on the welfare of green roofs as they might induce both beneficial as well as adverse effects on mosses. In this study, the occurrence of fungal populations was studied on green roofs in Finland. A total of 94 samples were collected from nine different green roofs, and 64 fungal isolates and one oomycete were obtained from the brown, necrotic parts of the collected green roof mosses. The most general isolated fungal genus was Trichoderma, comprising 25 different fungal isolates. The second most common genus was Fusarium, with 15 fungal isolates. The third most common genus was Mucor, with nine fungal isolates. Most of the Trichoderma isolates were described as T. harzianum, whereas most of the Fusarium isolates were described as F. acuminatium. In addition, the genera Phoma and Mortierella were frequently present. Fifty- two of 65 isolates caused symptoms in the model plant Physcomitrella patens. The most harmful Trichoderma isolates were described as T. atroviride, T. viride, T. koningiopsis and T. hamatum, all of which caused severe damage to the protonema, stem and leaves. The most harmful Fusarium isolates were F. acuminatium, F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum. The genera Mucor and Mortierella were isolated but they did not cause detectable symptoms in P. patens. These results indicate that many fungal isolates belonging to different genera are able to colonize mosses on green roofs and some of them cause severe damage to the mosses.
My previous research work has focused to describe fungal pathogens of green roof mosses and the signaling pathway induced by fungal cell component in Physcomitrella patens. My present research work specialize to study microbial products used to alleviate the problems in sewage drain and grease wells.
Master of Science (Agriculture and Forestry, Microbiology) Doctor of Science (Agriculture and Forestry, Plant pathology)
- Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transportation,Egypt
- Title:Hybrid system for iron and manganese reduction from polluted water using adsorption and filtration
- Time :
The high levels of iron and manganese found in ground water and utilized by living habitats has made it mandatory to seek a local low cost effective technique to decrease their concentrations. In this study, vermiculite clay and cation exchange resin were used as adsorbent and filter media to examine their ability in the removal and retention of those soluble metal. Different initial concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 30, and 50 ppm were examined using column testing. Vermiculite clay could remove iron up to 95% for the 5 ppm initial concentration and completely remove iron form the initial 2 ppm concentration at 70 min. Cation exchange resin worked better at lower concentrations yet couldn’t attain the allowable drinking water levels. For manganese, cation exchange resin performed better, where the highest removal rates attained for the 5 and 2 ppm were 99% and 100% successively within the first 10–20 min.
Ola Diaa El Monayeri is an Associate Professor at the Arab Academy for Science & Technology located in Cairo, Egypt. She obtained her Bachelor and Master Degrees from the American University in Cairo (2001 then 2003); then her PhD from Zagazig University, Egypt in 2009. The areas of expertise for Dr. Ola El Monayeri involve the following: Design of water and wastewater treatment networks Design of wastewater treatment plants Process design, simulation, operation, and optimization for WWTPs Preparation of Environmental impact assessment studies and energy efficiency in buildings.
Telephone number: +2 0100 6682343
- University of Seville, Spain
- Title:Regional Comparison on Energy Efficiency Drivers
- Time :
The impact of energy use on the planet is continuously increasing and stands as an unsolved problem. Energy efficiency remains as the main mitigation factor to curb the growth of energy consumption and related CO2 emissions, arguably the major responsible for climate change. Understanding the driving forces behind efficiency change is therefore crucial for defining energy policies and examining sustainable development pathways. To this aim, we propose a pyramidal approach to progressively analyse and decompose energy intensity, the main global efficiency indicator, using the LMDI method. First, the effects related to supply and demand sides of the energy system are separated. Then, the supply side is further decomposed to reveal structural effects associated with transformation processes and fuel types. The approach is applied to developed (OECD) and developing (non-OECD) regions to provide meaningful analysis and comparison of past trends, which could shed light to future effective environmental actions. The results show that a significant decrease in the energy intensity of both regions has been driven mainly by widespread improvements in demand-side efficiency. Despite huge differences in 1990, rapid globalisation of enhanced conversion devices and passive systems across borders suggests future convergence between developed and developing regions. Regarding the supply side, unfavourable structural changes due to electrification have only been offset by transformation efficiency gains in developed countries. Consequently, emerging economies have worsened their energy sector efficiency as they thrive. Hopefully, they could take OECD’s achievements as a roadmap to decouple development trajectories from an inefficient electrification as soon as possible. Key strategies should address changes in fuel mixes, as they have generally contributed to energy intensity reductions mainly due to shifts from coal and nuclear power towards gas and renewable plants. The proposed methodology could help stakeholders to effectively analyse the energy system and to develop policies to reduce its environmental impact.
María González-Torres, PhD student in Energy, Chemical and Environmental Engineering at University of Seville – Spain. She is an Industrial Technologies Engineer, with a MSc in Industrial Engineering and an expert in HVAC systems. She is currently working as a researcher in the Department of Energy Engineering at the University of Seville, in cooperation with the University of Cadiz within the Thermal Engineering Research Group. Her research focuses on identifying and quantifying the driving forces that make energy consumption and CO2 emissions change, considering the socio-economic factors leading to their growth and how efficiency and decarbonisation could counteract their effects.
- Tiangong University, China
- Title:Minimization of energy consumption by building shape optimization using an improved Manta-Ray Foraging Optimization algorithm
- Time :
For the optimization of envelope characteristics also the shape of the building, an optimization– simulation technique is applied in this paper. To obtain the best values of all related variables for
the minimization of energy consumption in residential buildings, an improved Manta-Ray Foraging Optimizer is considered as the optimization algorithm. Also, for whole-building energy simulation, RIUSKA is used. The optimization parameters are the area and type of the windows, foundation, wall and roof insulations, level of infiltration, orientation, and thermal mass. Various forms of the building including rectangle, trapezoid, T-shape, H-shape, cross, L-shape, and U-shape are studied. The model optimization process takes fewer computation time and expense. Moreover, the utilized technique implements fully proper in comparison to the particle swarm, approximating very close to
the optimum in less than 50% of the simulations The lowest life cycle cost is achieved by the buildings with trapezoid and rectangle form for five various climatic conditions. Also, the minimum variation from the optimum to the worst is observed by trapezoid and rectangle. The change in the values of
the life cycle cost is lower than 4.5%.
Yi-Peng Xu, major in mathematics and applied mathematics.
Dedicated to cross-science research, interested in research directions such as quantitative biology, image processing, machine learning, optimization methods, and structural mechanics.
- Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
- Title:Food Loss and Waste in the Context of the Circular Economy: a Systematic Review
- Time :
About 30% of food produced globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. In this sense, the objective of this research is to identify and systematize scientific publications relating food losses and wastes with solutions based on the concept of circular economy. Through inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 articles were identified, until April 2020, which were analysed using the StArt tool. The papers were analysed based on the five categories selected in this study: definitions of food losses and wastes, quantification of food losses and wastes, solutions for food losses and wastes, examples of circular economy, relationship between food losses and wastes circular economy and food. The publications on the theme are from 2011, being mostly reviews until 2018 and case studies in the last two years. Developed countries, mainly European, have more publications. It is worth mentioning that there is no specific concept for food losses and wastes, which makes it difficult to quantify. The concept of circular economy is more related in terms of reduction, reuse and recycling than the idea of a systematic change in the food supply chain. The need for future studies that associate food losses and wastes with the circular economy remains a global challenge, especially for developing countries.
Mariana Martins de Oliveira has a Master’s in Agribusiness from the Federal University of Santa Maria – UFSM / Palmeira das Missões. She graduated in Environmental Engineering from the University of Vale do Itajaí-UNIVALI. She worked in the Environmental Management of the Port of Itajaí. She participated in the Agro Leadership Development Program promoted by the National Agriculture Confederation, ranking among the finalists to represent Rio Grande do Sul in the National stage in Brasília. She also participated in the Young Champions of the Earth Award promoted by the UN Environment, where her project was selected among the 50 best. By reconciling the academic area with the technical area, she provided environmental consultancy services to rural unions in the region. She is currently Coordinator of the Municipal Environment Department of the Palmeira das Missões City Hall. She is also a partner owner of TopoMen Palmeira das Missões, working in the areas of georeferencing, topography and environmental licensing. In the research she is interested in the environmental and agribusiness areas related to waste management, food loss and waste, circular economy.
- Beijing Tianlichuang Glass Technology Development Co., Ltd.China
- Title:Research and Properties of Heat Preservation Coatings for Hot Ring Rolling of Titanium Alloy and Superalloy
- Time :
In recent years, with the continuous development of equipment manufacturing industry, the
high performance titanium alloy and superalloy seamless rings have been widely used. These
seamless rings mainly include aeroengine casing rings, carrier rocket capsule rings, gas
turbine rings, oil/gas pipeline rings and so on.The metal rings hot rolling technology has
become an irreplaceable manufacturing technology with low consumption, high efficiency
Owing to the special features of the titanium alloy and superalloy——bad thermal processes
plasticity and strong processes sensitivity, cracks occur easily with the metal temperature drop
in hot rolling processes.At the same time, the metal surface oxidation in the heating processes
will also affect the surface quality and performance of rolled parts. Therefore, usingheat
preservation and protective coatings is the most effective and simple solution.
In view of the above problems, Beijing Tianlichuang Glass Technology Development Co., Ltd.
has successfully developed the water-based heat preservation coating for titanium alloy and
superalloy hot rolling at different rolling processeses.The coatingsare coated on the metal
surface at room temperature, and then the billet can be heated in the furnace after it is dried.
During the heating processes, the coatings can prevent the metal oxidation at high
temperature, and the coatings canplay a role of heat preservation during transfer and rolling
processes, while the coatings have no lubrication effect when rolled.The representative
coating models are TZH-1, GZH-3 and GZH-5, and the specific applicable processesare shown
in table 1.At the same time, we can also research and production new heat preservation
coatings according to different needsof clients.
Table 1.Application of TZH-1, GZH-3 and GZH-5
Coating model Application temperature Heating time
TZH-1 900~1000℃ 0~10hours
GZH-3 1000~1100℃ 0~10hours
GZH-5 1000~1200℃ 0~10hours
Non-crystalline glass powders and minerals are main solid base materials of heat preservation
coatings. They are blended with additives, adhesives and water, then applied to metal surfaces
by brushing or spraying before heating.In the design of coating formulas, the specific hot ring
rolling processes (heating temperature, holding time, furnace atmosphere, hot rolling
condition) of titanium alloy and superalloy should be considered. The coatings should have
outstanding compatibility with the metals, and have appropriate high temperature viscosity
and expansion coefficient, to achieve perfect match with different hot rolling processes.The heat preservation coatings can solve the problem of hot insulation and protection of
titanium alloy and superalloy inhot ring rolling processes, and can reduce the surface crack of
metals after hot rolling, making the metals easier to obtain uniform and fine
microstructures.The coatingsare simple to use, non-toxic and environmental friendly.
Chi Feng: R & D engineer, master of engineering, responsible for the R & D of glass
protective lubricants for metal hot working, metal high-temperature protective coatings, heat
preservation coatings, high-temperature ceramic coatings, as well as pre-sales and after-sales
Company web page: http://www.tlcglass.com.cn
Su-jie Duan: Senior engineer, responsible for technology research and development of