- Tiangong University, China
- Title:Minimization of energy consumption by building shape optimization using an improved Manta-Ray Foraging Optimization algorithm
- Time :
For the optimization of envelope characteristics also the shape of the building, an optimization– simulation technique is applied in this paper. To obtain the best values of all related variables for
the minimization of energy consumption in residential buildings, an improved Manta-Ray Foraging Optimizer is considered as the optimization algorithm. Also, for whole-building energy simulation, RIUSKA is used. The optimization parameters are the area and type of the windows, foundation, wall and roof insulations, level of infiltration, orientation, and thermal mass. Various forms of the building including rectangle, trapezoid, T-shape, H-shape, cross, L-shape, and U-shape are studied. The model optimization process takes fewer computation time and expense. Moreover, the utilized technique implements fully proper in comparison to the particle swarm, approximating very close to
the optimum in less than 50% of the simulations The lowest life cycle cost is achieved by the buildings with trapezoid and rectangle form for five various climatic conditions. Also, the minimum variation from the optimum to the worst is observed by trapezoid and rectangle. The change in the values of
the life cycle cost is lower than 4.5%.
Yi-Peng Xu, major in mathematics and applied mathematics.
Dedicated to cross-science research, interested in research directions such as quantitative biology, image processing, machine learning, optimization methods, and structural mechanics.
- Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
- Title:Food Loss and Waste in the Context of the Circular Economy: a Systematic Review
- Time :
About 30% of food produced globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. In this sense, the objective of this research is to identify and systematize scientific publications relating food losses and wastes with solutions based on the concept of circular economy. Through inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 articles were identified, until April 2020, which were analysed using the StArt tool. The papers were analysed based on the five categories selected in this study: definitions of food losses and wastes, quantification of food losses and wastes, solutions for food losses and wastes, examples of circular economy, relationship between food losses and wastes circular economy and food. The publications on the theme are from 2011, being mostly reviews until 2018 and case studies in the last two years. Developed countries, mainly European, have more publications. It is worth mentioning that there is no specific concept for food losses and wastes, which makes it difficult to quantify. The concept of circular economy is more related in terms of reduction, reuse and recycling than the idea of a systematic change in the food supply chain. The need for future studies that associate food losses and wastes with the circular economy remains a global challenge, especially for developing countries.
Mariana Martins de Oliveira has a Master’s in Agribusiness from the Federal University of Santa Maria – UFSM / Palmeira das Missões. She graduated in Environmental Engineering from the University of Vale do Itajaí-UNIVALI. She worked in the Environmental Management of the Port of Itajaí. She participated in the Agro Leadership Development Program promoted by the National Agriculture Confederation, ranking among the finalists to represent Rio Grande do Sul in the National stage in Brasília. She also participated in the Young Champions of the Earth Award promoted by the UN Environment, where her project was selected among the 50 best. By reconciling the academic area with the technical area, she provided environmental consultancy services to rural unions in the region. She is currently Coordinator of the Municipal Environment Department of the Palmeira das Missões City Hall. She is also a partner owner of TopoMen Palmeira das Missões, working in the areas of georeferencing, topography and environmental licensing. In the research she is interested in the environmental and agribusiness areas related to waste management, food loss and waste, circular economy.
- Beijing Tianlichuang Glass Technology Development Co., Ltd.China
- Title:Research and Properties of Heat Preservation Coatings for Hot Ring Rolling of Titanium Alloy and Superalloy
- Time :
In recent years, with the continuous development of equipment manufacturing industry, the
high performance titanium alloy and superalloy seamless rings have been widely used. These
seamless rings mainly include aeroengine casing rings, carrier rocket capsule rings, gas
turbine rings, oil/gas pipeline rings and so on.The metal rings hot rolling technology has
become an irreplaceable manufacturing technology with low consumption, high efficiency
Owing to the special features of the titanium alloy and superalloy——bad thermal processes
plasticity and strong processes sensitivity, cracks occur easily with the metal temperature drop
in hot rolling processes.At the same time, the metal surface oxidation in the heating processes
will also affect the surface quality and performance of rolled parts. Therefore, usingheat
preservation and protective coatings is the most effective and simple solution.
In view of the above problems, Beijing Tianlichuang Glass Technology Development Co., Ltd.
has successfully developed the water-based heat preservation coating for titanium alloy and
superalloy hot rolling at different rolling processeses.The coatingsare coated on the metal
surface at room temperature, and then the billet can be heated in the furnace after it is dried.
During the heating processes, the coatings can prevent the metal oxidation at high
temperature, and the coatings canplay a role of heat preservation during transfer and rolling
processes, while the coatings have no lubrication effect when rolled.The representative
coating models are TZH-1, GZH-3 and GZH-5, and the specific applicable processesare shown
in table 1.At the same time, we can also research and production new heat preservation
coatings according to different needsof clients.
Table 1.Application of TZH-1, GZH-3 and GZH-5
Coating model Application temperature Heating time
TZH-1 900~1000℃ 0~10hours
GZH-3 1000~1100℃ 0~10hours
GZH-5 1000~1200℃ 0~10hours
Non-crystalline glass powders and minerals are main solid base materials of heat preservation
coatings. They are blended with additives, adhesives and water, then applied to metal surfaces
by brushing or spraying before heating.In the design of coating formulas, the specific hot ring
rolling processes (heating temperature, holding time, furnace atmosphere, hot rolling
condition) of titanium alloy and superalloy should be considered. The coatings should have
outstanding compatibility with the metals, and have appropriate high temperature viscosity
and expansion coefficient, to achieve perfect match with different hot rolling processes.The heat preservation coatings can solve the problem of hot insulation and protection of
titanium alloy and superalloy inhot ring rolling processes, and can reduce the surface crack of
metals after hot rolling, making the metals easier to obtain uniform and fine
microstructures.The coatingsare simple to use, non-toxic and environmental friendly.
Chi Feng: R & D engineer, master of engineering, responsible for the R & D of glass
protective lubricants for metal hot working, metal high-temperature protective coatings, heat
preservation coatings, high-temperature ceramic coatings, as well as pre-sales and after-sales
Company web page: http://www.tlcglass.com.cn
Su-jie Duan: Senior engineer, responsible for technology research and development of
- Federal University of Pará, Brazil
- Title:Legacies on the ground. Assessing ancient plant management in the Lower Amazon
- Time :
Plant management and human development are entangled in Amazonia, where landscape transformations such as cultural forests and anthrosols are associated with archaeological sites. The highly fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are anthropogenic soils that figure as a major human footprint in Amazonian landscapes. Numerous ancient Tapajó settlements dated to the Late Pre-Columbian period (AD 1000-1600) within the Santarem region present ADEs. This paper presents the main results from an archaeobotanical study in three sites recovering a diversity of food and non-food plants through phytolith analysis in samples from domestic contexts and test pits profiles. Domesticates included maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and squash (Cucurbita sp.), whereas palms (peach palm/tucumã, açaí palm), tubers (Marantaceae) and fruit trees (Annonaceae, Burseraceae and Celtis sp.) were the main native plants recovered in samples from the three sites. These phytoliths and anthropogenic soils are addressed as legacies from past human plant consumption and assess ancient soil and vegetal management strategies.
Dr Daiana T. Alves is currently a full-time Professor at the Federal University of Pará, Brazil. She has a BA in History (2009) and an MA in Anthropology/Archaeology (2012) from the Federal University of Pará and a PhD in Archeology (2017) from the University of Exeter (United Kingdom). She is chief editor of the Amazônica-Anthropology Journal and a member of the Society for Brazilian Archeology (SAB), Society for American Archeology (SAA) and International Phytolith Society (IPS). She leads the Research Group on Amazonian Archaeology – Tapera, investigating plants’ production and consumption in the Pre-Columbian Amazon. Her research focuses on Pre-Columbian land-uses, food production strategies and social changes in Amazonia by integrating archaeology, ethnohistory, geochemistry, and Palaeoethnobotany approaches. A particular interest is the formation of Amazonian Dark Earth anthrosols associated with late Holocene archaeological sites.
- Aalborg University, Denmark.
- Title:Optimized Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil into Ecofriendly Bio-based Polymeric Surfactant- A Solution for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Green Fuel Compatibility
- Time :
Waste cooking oil (WCO) is generally considered a global waste but with prospective for secondary use such as fuels or chemicals. In the present work, functionalizing of WCO to polymeric surfactants through a cleaner approach with high emulsification ability for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of fossil crude and enhanced biocrudes solubility in petroleum crudes is proposed. The influence of synthesis conditions (temperature, time and concentration of reactants) on intermediates and the resulting polymeric surfactants was investigated. Products were characterized by UV-Vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and DLS technique, and particle stability and Zeta potential were evaluated. The results showed the high stability of the fossil crude-surfactant-brine emulsion. The affinity of the polymeric surfactant for EOR under Danish reservoir was also investigated. It was observed that the IFT of brine-surfactant emulsion (31.35 dynes/cm) was reduced to almost half compared to neat saline water (68.82 dynes/cm), and that the viscosity of fossil crude oil in presence of polymeric surfactant was significantly decreased. Finally, the polymeric surfactant was employed to assess compatibility of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis biocrudes with fossil refinery streams with an aim to promote their integration into existing refinery. Consequently, the correlation between compatibility and molecular structure was drawn based on the experimental investigation on miscibility studies. The results obtained during the phase behaviour and IFT studies showed the high emulsification ability of functionalized polymeric surfactant for the enhanced crude oil recovery at reservoir conditions. In conclusion, the study introduces the concept of reusing WCO as an ecofriendly polymeric surfactant for EOR and green fuel compatibility enhancer.
Kamaldeep Sharma, Ph.D. is Postdoctoral-Fellow in advanced biofuels group at Aalborg University, Denmark. Kamaldeep received Bachelor’s, Master’s and Ph.D. degrees from Guru Nanak Dev University, India. He is a pioneer in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and has several years’ experience in catalysts synthesis for photocatalytic and catalytic conversion processes for the synthesis of value added chemicals. Additionally, he has also 2 years’ experience in hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic upgrading of bio-oils. His recent research activities include the synthesis of catalysts from industrial wastes as well as utilization of different wastes (agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and sewage sludge) for the production of biofuels. He has published several research articles and book chapters in peer-reviewed journals of international repute. He is currently working in a couple of Danish and European Union research projects during his stay at Aalborg University. He is guest editor of a special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073) belongs to the section ‘‘Bio-Energy’’.
- Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Russia.
- Title:Subcritical Nuclear Reactor Driven by ion Beams
- Time :
The performance of subcritical nuclear reactors driven by proton and ion beams (accelerator driven system- ADS) is analyzed and the advantage of ion beams is substantiated. The conditions which maximize the power production and the energy gain G (defined as the ratio of the power produced to the power spent for the beam acceleration), ensuring in the same time a safe exploitation are identified.
With a proper choice of the target G of 20-30 can be obtained.
The particle fluence and the energy released are obtained through simulation with Geant4. The power spent to accelerate the beam is calculated by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for a reference particle.
Cylindrical targets with rods of solid fuel (metallic alloy, oxide, carbide) in a bath of coolant are considered. The most significant influence on the energy released demonstrates the material used for the converter. The use of light materials increases the energy released especially for light ions at low energy. The best results are obtained with Be converter with length 100-120 cm.
The value of the criticality coefficient keff must be chosen as high as possible to maximize the power produced, but low enough to ensure a safe functioning of the reactor. The reactivity changes during various accident scenarios were analyzed in order to identify possible positive reactivity insertions. A value of 0.985 for keff ensures enough safety margin.
The results obtained with protons and ions beams from deuteron to 20Ne and energies from
0.2 to 2 AGeV, accelerated in a linac and interacting in U-Pu-Zr target with Be converter and keff 0.985 are presented. The beam intensity is 1.25‧1016, and the linac efficiency 0.18 for protons (values taken from the European Spallation Source project).
The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV, with a G of 10 and net power Pnet of 150 MW. G 2-3 times higher can be realized with ion beams. With a beam of 7Li with energy 0.25 AGeV one gets the same Pnet but with G of 18, and necessitates an accelerator 2.6 times shorter. At intermediate accelerator length beams of Li or Be are the best option (G 20-25, Pnet 350-400 MW). In an accelerator with the same length as for 1.5 GeV proton it is preferable to accelerate ions with higher mass (12C, 16O, 20Ne) getting a G~ 30 and Pnet~1 GW.
Mihaela Paraipan has completed her PhD from Politechnica University Bucharest, Romania.
She is working in present as senior researcher at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna , and she has more than 20 articles in peer reviewed journals.
- University of Naples, Italy
- Title:Analyzing The Levelized Cost of Hydrogen in Refueling Stations with On-site Hydrogen Production via Water Electrolysis in the Italian Scenario
- Time :
Hydrogen refueling infrastructures with on-site production from renewable sources are an interesting solution for assuring green hydrogen with zero CO2 emissions. The main problem of these stations development is the hydrogen cost that depends on both the plant size (hydrogen production capacity) and on the renewable source.
In this study, a techno-economic assessment of on-site hydrogen refueling stations (HRS), based on grid-connected PV plants integrated with electrolysis units, has been performed. Different plant configurations, in terms of hydrogen production capacity (50 kg/day, 100 kg/day, 200 kg/day) and the electricity mix (different sharing of electricity supply between the grid and the PV plant), have been analyzed in terms of electric energy demands and costs. The study has been performed by considering the Italian scenario in terms of economic streams (i.e. electricity prices) and solar irradiation conditions.
The levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH), that is the more important indicator among the economic evaluation indexes, has been calculated for all configurations by estimating the investment costs, the operational and maintenance costs and the replacement costs.
Results highlighted that the investment costs increase proportionally as the electricity mix changes from Full Grid operation (100% Grid) to Low Grid supply (25% Grid) and as the hydrogen production capacity grows, because of the increasing in the sizes of the PV plant and the HRS units. The operational and maintenance costs are the main contributor to the LCOH due to the annual cost of the electricity purchased from the grid.
The calculated LCOH values range from 9.29 €/kg (200 kg/day, 50% Grid) to 12.48 €/kg (50
kg/day, 100% Grid).
Simona Di Micco is a PhD student in Energy Science and Engineering at University of Naples “Parthenope” (Italy).
The scientific fields of interest on which she is focused on, are related to polygeneration systems devoted to produce electric energy, thermal energy and, particularly, hydrogen, useful for the automotive sector, as well as for the maritime sector. Her particular attention is devoted to the thermo-economic analysis of different hydrogen production plants, considering different primary sources for hydrogen production and focusing on its production from renewable sources.
Moreover, her attention is also devoted to the Microbial Fuel Cells, for investigating the production of renewable electric energy from organic waste.
- Tohoku University, Japan
- Title:The Impact of Resource Control on Electricity Systems
- Time :
Climate change requires tremendous efforts and the largest reconstruction of industry in the last 200 years. Fossil fuels must be
abandoned and replaced by other energy sources. This requires other types of resources, which are not necessarily more environmentally benign. As an example, the excessive use of biomass for energy conversion could cause more harm than fossil fuels ever did. For this purpose, it is an appealing idea to establish a system that controls the overall resource consumption by attaching a price tag to resources, including fossil fuels, land use, and minerals. The price is balanced by Ecopoints emitted to the worldwide population, purchasing as consumers the resources incorporated in goods. As the amount of available Ecopoints is limited, resource exploitation is, as well. An efficient use of resources requires therefore processes with a low resource consumption, the utilization of waste and recycling. From this perspective, electricity production from hard coal is about 250 time more expensive than hydro energy. It is revealing that wood requires a higher Ecopoint price than fuel oil for the same energy produced. Such a system could guide the industrial development to a more resource protective state by giving resource conserving processes a financial advantage, while consumers are allowed to gain financial advantage from their own consumption decisions.
Guido Grause obtained his doctoral degree in 2003 at the University Hamburg in the field of chemical recycling of polyesters. After that, he investigated the impact of flame retardants on the thermal degradation of polymers and the removal of heavy metals by chloride volatilization at the Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. Since 2013, he works as Associate Professor in the Laboratory for International Energy Resources and the Laboratory for Geoenvironmental Remediation at Tohoku University. His recent research focusses on resource management and microplastic in soil.
- University of Dublin, Ireland.
- Title:Pyroprocessing and Reactivity of Saudi Arabian Red mud (RM) Waste for the Production of Sustainable Binders.
- Time :
The high embodied energy and Carbon emissions of traditional binders have led to a search for alternative cements. This paper explores the composition and reactivity of a red mud (RM) generated in vast quantities in Saudi Arabia, with a view to replace non-sustainable binders in construction.
RM waste is produced when refining bauxite for the production of aluminium. Previous authors estimate that 70-120 million tons of RM are generated annually, and stored on land or in the ocean near alumina refineries. In Ma’aden, current production is around 6,000 tonnes per day (over 2 million tonnes per year) which leads to long term disposal problems and land decommissioning costs. To date, due to its high alkalinity, only small quantities RM (3 wt.%) have been incorporated into Portland cement. However, the quantities need to raise to at least 5-10% for a worthy disposal option, and a viable option has not yet been found.
This paper studies the physical properties, composition and reactivity of the Saudi RM, and concludes on its possible application as a binder. The silica content and alkalinity are considered, as well as the specific surface area and composition which determine reactivity. According to the results, the RM presents abundant surface available to reaction, superior to commercial Portland cement and to other pozzolanic and supplementary cements such as FA and GGBS. The results also evidenced that gibbsite- Al (OH)3 , hematite -Fe₂O3 and cancrinite – Na₆Ca₂[(CO₃)₂|Al₆Si₆O₂₄]• 2H₂O are the main components of the RM, and that some Boehmite- ϒ- AlO(OH) is also present, inherited form the parent bauxite. The high alkalinity and temperature of the Bayer process have transformed the original kaolinite into cancrinite. The phase transformation of the RM resulting from the pyroprocessing at several temperatures are determined with X-Ray Diffraction analyses. The paper explores the evolution of the crystalline phases and their reactivity based on the setting and strength development.
Sara Pavia is a Professor in the Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Dublin Trinity College. Her work focusses on sustainable materials and construction including thermal insulation, alkali-activated cements and pozzolanic binders, earth construction, building limes, bio-aggregate concretes and waste activation. She also works on historic buildings in both industry and academia.
She has published seven books and 150 papers and she often works in industry, for Government bodies and in several European groups such as RILEM and CEN.
- CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation ,India
- Title:Graphene and Graphene Like Nano-Dimensioned Materials for Diagnostic Applications
- Time :
Graphene, the wonder material is just one of the many 2-D materials that have been discovered now. In constant efforts to improve the properties of the graphene, many new graphene-like materials have been developed such as graphane, fluorographene, white graphene, and various other forms of graphene (oxides, quantum dots, ribbons, coils, pillars and fibers). These graphene like or graphene based materials are the most studied and researched because of their excellent optical and electronic behavior as both these properties are of utmost importance while considering diagnostic applications. These have been used as biosensing platforms, anti-cancer agents, cell imaging and in photo-thermal applications, along with many other applications. For our applications, we explored graphene and graphene like nano-dimensioned materials as immobilization matrix for detection of anemia biomarkers, and cardiac biomarkers. These materials not only provide matrix but also facilitate fast reactions due their catalytic property which ultimately helps in signal amplification.
Suman Singh is working as Principal Scientist in CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Chandigarh, India. She is also a faculty of chemistry (Associate Professor) at Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) at CSIR-CSIO, Chandigarh. Her lab is engaged in developing Advanced Bio-Chemo sensors for Diagnostic & Environment Monitoring using advanced nanomaterials and their composites. Her group has also expertise in developing opto-electrochemical platforms like screen printed electrodes, optical chips, thin film deposition, paper devices, microfluidic devices, etc. She has been a regular recipient of funding from various agencies like DST-India, DBT-India, CSIR, ICMR. Her work is published in many reputed SCI journals of high impact factor and has many book chapters to her credit. She is co-faculty advisor to Student Chapter of American Chemical Society at CSIR-CSIO/AcSIR. She is life member of many scientific societies.
- Delhi Technological University,India
- Title:Modelling and Simulation of Cathode Material for 2D Lithium-ion Solid-State Battery
- Time :
This work has been presented to develop a simulation model of 2D Lithium-ion Solid State Battery (SSB) for studying the thermal and electrical characteristics by varying the thickness of the electrode. This simulation model helps us to explore the cathode material characteristics to optimize lithium-ion SSB’s performance. In this paper, the simulation model has been formulated with 2D domain geometry and also encapsulated with variable parameters on a Multiphysics software. The electrochemical model was also formed with the help of mathematical modeling equations to obtain the rate capability of the li-ion SSB. This simulation model study shows the good thermal stability of the cathode material with a varied temperature range from 0⸰C to 150⸰C. Moreover, the electrical and electrochemical results also show good electrochemical reactivity, proper diffusion of li-ions, and good transport properties in the positive electrode of the li-ion SSB. Furthermore, this simulation approach shows a proper discharge curve at various C-rates and also highlights the concentration of li-ion, electrons, and heat flux with good stability in the Lithium-ion SSB.
Snigdha Sharma has always been interested in the field of energy storage devices, taking into account the batteries, supercapacitors, and many more. She received a bachelor’s degree (B. Tech) in electrical and electronics engineering from Gautam Buddha Technical University, India, and a master’s degree (M. Tech) in Power system engineering from Gautam Buddha University, India. Currently, I am in Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India. She strengthened her expertise in lithium-ion batteries in which she is having a handful command on simulation software as wells as experimental work for various applications such as Electric Vehicles, Automations, Grids, and Battery back-up systems.