Day2

  • University of Tocantins, Brazil
  • Title:Soy Water Footprint and Socioeconomic Development: an Analysis in the new Agricultural Expansion Areas of the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna)
  • Time :

Abstract
The relationship between the Water Footprint (WF) of soy production and the socioeconomic development of the municipalities located in the recent agricultural expansion areas of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna), between 2007 and 2016 was to verify in this study. For this purpose, the development of soy producing and non-producing municipalities was compared, according to different categories of consolidation time and economic weight of this culture, through multivariate analysis. The correlation between the development index and the absolute WF was calculated. The results found refute the hypothesis that the development of producing municipalities is a reflection of the economic advances provided by the soybean producer in these areas. Those who have consolidated their soy production for over 30 years are the ones that showed the best overall development, but not the best health sub-indicators. However, they did not show good results in the distribution of income and employment creation. The size of the areas destined to the cultivation of this conmodity is associated to local climate changes that put productive and environmental sustainability at risk, since, for each unit of growth of the municipal development indicator, water consumption increased 17 times and it was found the water footprint of soybeans is inversely linked to the municipal development index.

Biography
Dr. Líliana Pena Naval is a biologist, interested in the conservation of water resources, using effluent reuse as
a management tool. her work addresses such as effluent reuse, water footprint and social
technologies for effluent treatment. In her work, she apply laboratory experiments and modeling approaches.
She have a PhD in Chemical Engineering from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and
a Post-Doctorate in Sciences IPEN (Energy Research Institute)/University of São Paulo
(USP). she have developed projects in the area of Environmental Sciences, with an emphasis
on environmental sanitation, working mainly on the topic of effluent reuse. she work as a
professor at the Federal University of Tocantins (UFT/Brazil). She is a professor at the
Federal University of Tocantins, Northern Brazil (Amazon region).

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology , India
  • Title:Aerosol Characteristics Over the Indian Summer Monsoon Region: Spatial Heterogeneity and its Climatic Implications
  • Time :

Abstract
The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region, comprises the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in the northern part of India, is dominated by the enhanced loading of anthropogenic aerosol pollution and thus considered as one of the global hotspots. It is one such region, where heterogeneity in aerosol optical and microphysical properties over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales continues to hinder in improving the estimates of aerosol-induced climate forcing. Rapid increase in population and urbanization has resulted in excessive fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning leading to high anthropogenic aerosol loading over this region. The large increase in anthropogenic aerosols over the IGB is hypothesized to cause considerable changes in regional monsoonal circulation and also the global climate system apart from the aerosol-induced negative health impacts. The recent worldwide lockdown, imposed due to current pandemic of coronavirus lead to lower the emissions from various anthropogenic sources across the world, including India by restricting various community mobilities like traffic, construction and industrial activities. This resulted an improved air quality at highly polluted regions, like IGB. However, these reductions are temporary, and may not have any long-term impact on global climate change but may affect the seasonal monsoon activities in India. The current situation can be seen as positive to put forward our efforts to improve the levels of various air pollutants in our ambient air and the impact of different emission sources on its level, and also towards our research more on green energy.

Biography
Dr. Atul Kumar Srivastava received his M. Sc. (Tech.) degree from the Department of Geophysics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, and Ph.D. from Pune University, Pune, India. He worked as Postdoctoral Fellow at ARIES, Nainital, India during Aug 2007-May 2008. He joined the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi, India in June 2008 and presently working as Scientist-E. His main research interests are to understand and quantify aerosol characteristics and their direct and indirect climatic implications through measurements and modelling. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed research papers (with total citation: 4000 and h-index: 37 as per google scholar). Also, Published 05 Book Chapters. He has received the Best Paper Award during TROPMET-2012 and IASTA-2018. He has been nominated for the INSA medal for Young Scientist in 2012-2013. He has received prestigious Humboldt Fellowship for working visit at TROPOS, Germany in 2015. Also, received FinCEAL Plus BRIDGES Asia Research Award for Visiting Scientist at FMI, Finland in 2019.

  • Federal Institute of Education, Brazil
  • Title:Water use Efficiency by Castor Oil Plant Under Semi-arid Conditions of Brazil 
  • Time :

Abstract
Castor bean is one of the main and promising agricultural crops for the production of biodiesel, castor oil and castor bean cake, which have high added value, especially the oil. Although castor bean is a crop known as relatively tolerant to drought, the production is reduced after long periods of droughts, frequent in the semi-arid region of Brazil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the water use efficiency (WUE) of castor bean cultivars by assessing the soil water balance components (storage and water storage variation; internal drainage; capillary rise; irrigation depth; rainfall and actual evapotranspiration), gas exchange and morphoagronomic characters. These works have been carried out from 2018 to the present. Castor bean cultivars with supplemental irrigation at a rate of 8 L day-1. Soil water storage was lower for the most productive castor bean cultivar (EBDA MPA 11), with an inverse relationship between yield and water storage, due to its water requirement. The highest and lowest values of internal drainage and capillary rise were found for BRS Nordestina and IAC 226, respectively. EBDA MPA 11 had the best water use efficiency among the castor bean cultivars. In the works currently developed, we work an ideal environment maintained with in irrigation of 8 L day-1 and in the environment with water deficit, an irrigation of 2.4 L day-1. The castor bean cultivars were evaluated for morphoagronomic traits for the estimation of genetic parameters, stability and adaptability (GGE Biplot) and was possible to investigate the percentage of productivity loss between the cultivars when comparing the two contrasting water environments. Losses ranged from 48% for the cultivar with the lowest WUE to 6% for the cultivar with the highest WUE. The cultivars that stood out as most adapted to and stable under water deficit were EBDA MPA11, EBDA MPB35, EBDA MPB34 and IAC 2028. It is worth mentioning that the same cultivars were evaluated to aim at check the behavior of gas exchange in a contrasting water environment. In the initial of analysis of the results, a relationship between the results of the morphoagronomic data and the results obtained for the characteristics obtained by the photosynthesis analyzer was observed. In this work, the parameters of physiological as WUEf (Net assimilation rate/transpiration rate), WUEa (Production/actual evapotranspiration), yield, transpiration rate and gas exchages were measured. In the early inferences, cultivars IAC 226 and EBDA17 stood out with the best results for the gas exchange data. These results will support the understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere dynamics to be used in castor bean crops in the semi-arid region of Bahia and tools for the castor bean breeding program at IF Baiano for the selection of genotypes with high water use efficiency.

Biography
Dr. Leandro Santos Peixouto is graduated in Agronomic Engineering from UFRB (2007), master’s degree (2009) and doctorate (2013) in Genetics and Plant Breeding from UFLA. He has experience in agronomy, plant genetic improvement, experimentation and statistical analysis by the R. Professor since 2010 at the Instituto Federal Baiano, Campus Guanambi. He is currently developing research in plant improvement of the castor bean crop to develop cultivars for the semi-arid region of Bahia.

Co-Authors
Alexsandro dos Santos Brito, Instituto Federal Baiano, Campus Guanambi – Doctor in Soil Physics;
Yslai Silva Peixouto, Doctoral Student in Genetics and Molecular Biology – UESC;
Darley de Araujo Nascimento, Mastering in Soils and Plant Nutrition – ESALQ/USP.

  • State University of Londrina, Brazil
  • Title:Methane Production Using a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor dor Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste and Swine Manure With Different Volumetric Organic Load
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Abstract
A poorly solid waste management (SWM), speacilly in developing countries, not only cause degradation to the environment but also public health challenges. These challenges might be an opportunity for a country as Brazil for the use of organic solid waste (OSW) to produce energy within a generated distribution system. However, the variation between the quantities and characteristics of the OSW is a key factor for the energy production. The aims of this work was to evaluate the methane production of a 40m3 anaerobic reactor using three OSW in different periods, from university’s restaurant (UR) and hospital (UH – only food waste) and swine manure (SM); find the consequences into the system due the volumetric organic load (VOL) variation; and analyze the control parameters when the organic load was momentanium interrupted. A continuous stirred-tank reactor – CSTR, was used in a semi-continuos operation – controlled temperature of 36 ºC (±2ºC); intermittent mechanical agitation – 10 minutes agitation in intervals of 6 hours; over 278 days in 6 hydraulic retention time (HRT 1 to 6) of 40 days each – with 3 three times a week of loading – there was also a start-up period of 18 days and 20 days of momentanium load interruption. Results showed that the VOL varied from 0.14 (HRT 4 – SM) to 2.50 kgVS.m-3.d-1 (HRT 3 – UR), with a global VOL (medium for the whole operation period) of 0.5 kgVS.m-3.d-1; the highest specific methane yield (SMY) was 0.62 m3CH4.kgVS-1 (SM) and medium VOL of 0.19 kgVS.m-3.d-1, both for HRT 4; On the biogas, the methane content (MC) varied from 54,6% (start-up) to 66,6% (HRT 4 – SM) with global value of 60,4%; and the better convertion of SW to biogas was to UR, with 75.0%, both forthe start-up and HRT 1 of VS. At the interruption period, the biogas production was reduced in 81.6% but the methane content average was 64.9%. In conclusion, the studied CSTR kept a good methane production even with the variations of VOL and the interruption. This reactor has positive potential under proper operation for the its use to produce methane and provide it for energy production beyond the appropriate organic solid waste treatment.

Biography
Dr. Marcos Vinicius Costa Rodrigues is a environmental engineer with masters in civil engineering focused on urban watersheds and environment impact assessment and environmental management. Professional with 6 years of experience in urban and environmental planning as project coordinator to cities within 10.000 to 150.000 inhabitants (afforestation, solid waste, wastewater, sewage, hydric resources, air pollution, sanitation, georeferencing) and 4 years experience in organic effluent treatment.

Co-Authors
Mauricio Aparecido Bortoloti. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of Londrina.
Adriana Zeminiani Challiol. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of Londrina.
Isabela Mangerino Sicchieri. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of Londrina.
Thainara Camila Fernandes de Quadrdos. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of Londrina.
Emília Kiyomi Kuroda. Graduate Program in Civil Engineering. State University of Londrina.
Fernando Fernandes. Graduate Program in Civil Engineering. State University of Londrina.

  • University of Magallanes, Chile
  • Title:Status of Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Aquaculture Production Technology in Chile
  • Time :09:25 - 09:50 AM

Abstract
The European aquaculture industry began to undertake Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) aquaculture in the 1980s due to the favorable growth rate and high market value of this cold-water marine fish. Atlantic halibut cultivation began in Chile in 1996 in the Magallanes region (53 ̊S). Chilean aquaculture facilities were finally equipped to begin rearing Atlantic halibut after 12 years and a total investment of $ 2 million USD. Infrastructure is now in place to manage the entire production cycle, including broodstock rearing, egg incubation, larval rearing (yolk-sac stage, first-feeding), weaning, the nursery stage, on-growing in land-based tanks, harvest, and marketing. The hatchery phase to produce 10-g juveniles requires 10–12 months, followed by an approximately 30-month grow-out phase in land-based tanks to produce 3-kg fish. Further research and development are being performed in nutrition (diet formulation), genetics (selection for disease resistance and growth rate), fish health, and environmental issues to support the development of a sustainable marine aquaculture industry for this species.

Biography
Dr. Pablo Gallardo Ojeda currently an Associate Professor at the University of Magallanes, Director of the Department of Agricultural and Aquacultural Sciences, Director of the Bahía Laredo Marine Research Center and Institutional Representative to FONDEF-ANID. During his professional development (24 years) he have formulated, directed and participated in almost thirty Aquaculture R&D projects, both for fish, mollusks, algae, echinoderms and crustaceans, directing work groups, both professionally and support and leveraging nearly US$ 5 million in pecuniary resources from competitive funds. he have participated in 19 publications and 9 scientific congresses, in Chile and abroad. Annually, he teach 6 level subjects; technical, undergraduate and postgraduate and he have directed 14 theses and professional practices of students of Marine Biology, Aquaculture Engineering and Aquatic Resources Technicians. In addition, he participate in the Technical Scientific Committee for Land Management of Aquaculture and the Recreational Fishing Committee of the Magallanes region, both belonging to the Undersecretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture of Chile Government and the Ethics Committee of the University of Magallanes.

  • Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, USA
  • Title:Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Impact by Disposable Drinking Straws: A Trade-off Analysis with Marine Litter
  • Time :09:50 - 10:15 AM

Abstract
Sound environmental management to control marine plastic pollution requires a careful assessment of environmental costs and benefits of replacing single-use plastics with their biodegradable counterparts. This research employs the standard life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to assess and compare the environmental impact of plastic straws made from polypropylene (PP), and its biodegradable alternatives made from polylactic acid (PLA) and paper (PA) in the United States. Eight environmental impact categories, not including marine litter, were analyzed and a composite relative environmental impact index (REI) was derived for quantitative comparison. The results show that US daily consumption of disposable drinking straws (500 million straws daily) may carry significant environmental burdens regardless of straw types, with the feedstock manufacture stage of the life cycle creating most of the contribution. The REI index values were 2.4 for PP straws, 6.4 for PLA straws, and 5.1 for PA straws with landfill and 3.2 for PP straws, 6.8 for PLA straws, and 4.9 for PA straws with incineration. A sensitivity analysis did not show much change in REI with increasing marine litter rate, demonstrating that replacing PP straws with PLA or PA straws for controlling marine plastic pollution would come with environmental costs in other categories. The trade-off can be quantitatively represented by the difference in REI between PP straws and PA or PLA straws. Our analysis also indicates close-loop recycling can reduce the environmental impact of PP straws, serving as a technological development to control plastic pollution. While disposable straws were used as a case study in this work, the findings are extensive to other single-use products. Focused data collection programs are strongly needed for future LCA studies to establish a quantitative relationship between marine litter rate, fate and transport of plastic debris in the marine environment, and the extent to which a species’ population may be affected.

Biography
Dr. Yongshan Wan is a supervisory environmental engineer at the Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, US EPA. In this role, he leads a vibrant research team, conducting independent and collaborative research dealing with environmental issues of national significance such as coastal pollution by nutrients and plastics, harmful algal blooms, and heavy metal contamination. The technical approach employed by his team integrates molecular techniques, instrumental analysis, sensor-based data acquisition, and environmental modeling. Dr. Wan is an author of over 120 peer-reviewed publications.

  • Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor , Serbia
  • Title:Interstitial Water in Tailings as a Source of Groundwater Pollution in The Bor Mining Area, Eastern Serbia
  • Time :10:15 - 10:40 AM

Abstract
The exploitation of porphyry copper deposits has been carried out for about 120 years in Eastern Serbia. Mining activities have led to serious environmental problems, the most notable being air pollution and surface water pollution. However, the effects of long-time pollution on groundwater in the Bor mining area have not been clarified. This study defined the existence of groundwater pollution along the banks of polluted rivers and the mechanism of pollutants infiltration into groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected in settlements along Bor River and Bela River polluted by mining activities, located downstream of the Bor mine. To understand the background concentrations of elements in the groundwater of the study area, groundwater samples were collected outside the mining area.
Natural water in Eastern Serbia contains high bicarbonate concentrations, which gives a good buffering capacity and near-neutral pH values to groundwater in the study area. These conditions prevent pollution by heavy metals. However, high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42-, which are aqueous species and they can be present in a near-neutral solution, are found in groundwater along rivers polluted by mining activities. Concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- in groundwater collected within 100 m from the polluted rivers range up to 511 mg/L and 1111 mg/L, respectively. The actual concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- exceeded the maximum admissible value described by Serbian standard for drinking water making groundwater located near polluted river banks unsafe for drinking purposes. To investigate the possibility of groundwater pollution by interstitial water in tailings deposited on the floodplains of rivers downstream of the Bor mine and pollution by direct infiltration of polluted river water into groundwater, the chemical composition of pore water and polluted river water was determined. Using mixing analysis, it has been established that the mechanism of groundwater pollution is the infiltration of interstitial water in tailings along the banks of polluted rivers into groundwater. Mixing between interstitial water in tailings and groundwater may be possible in the rainy season and snow-melting season when water from the surface can percolate into the aquifer. This study also showed that Ca2+ and SO42- are suitable components for the environmental evaluation of groundwater in mining areas in Eastern Serbia.

Biography
Dr Dragana Adamović works in the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (Serbia) as a Research Associate in the instrumental analysis department. Working and leaving in a mining area, she put great interest in environmental protection. In 2018, she received a scholarship from the Government of Japan and continues her education at Akita University. Since then, she has been actively involved in the problems related to surface water and groundwater pollution by mining activities in eastern Serbia. In 2021, she obtained PhD degree. She has published several papers in peer-reviewed journals. The subject of this presentation is groundwater pollution in Eastern Serbia.

  • University of Oslo, Norway
  • Title:Establishing Empirical Models for Predicting Forest Carbon Uptake Using Seven Environmental Drivers
  • Time :10:40 - 11:05 AM

Abstract
Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of forests is the net carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between land and the atmosphere due to forests’ biogeochemical processes. NEP varies with natural drivers such as precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, plant functional type (PFT), and soil texture, which affect the gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, and thus the net C sequestration. It is also known that deposition of sulphur and nitrogen influences NEP in forest ecosystems. These drivers’ respective, unique effects on NEP, however, are often difficult to be individually identified by conventional bivariate analysis. Here we show that by analyzing 22 forest sites with 231 site-year data acquired from FLUXNET database across Europe for the years 2000-2014, the individual, unique effects of these drivers on annual forest CO2 fluxes can be disentangled using Generalized Additive Models (GAM) for nonlinear regression analysis. We show that S and N deposition have substantial impacts on NEP, where S deposition above 5 kg S ha-1 yr-1 can significantly reduce NEP, and N deposition around 22 kg N ha-1 yr-1 has the highest positive effect on NEP. Our results suggest that air quality management of S and N is crucial for maintaining healthy biogeochemical functions of forests to mitigate climate change. Furthermore, the empirical models we developed for estimating NEP of forests can serve as a forest management tool in the context of climate change mitigation. Potential applications include the assessment of forest carbon fluxes in the REDD+ framework of the UNFCCC.

Biography
Dr.You Ren Wang was born in Taipei, Taiwan. He received bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Physics from National Taiwan University and Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, US. His research field was experimental astroparticle physics (neutrino). Later he changed his field from physics to environmental sciences, believing it is closer to the real world. His particular interested in the research related to climate change. He his now a postdoc researcher in Centre for Biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene, University of Oslo. The study he just finished was to disentangle effects of natural and anthropogenic drivers on forest carbon uptake, using in-situ measured FLUXNET data, modelled sulphur and nitrogen deposition data, and GAM regression technique. Another ongoing study is to evaluate global and regional land surface temperature rate of change in the past decades, using MODIS remote sensing data and ERA5-Land reanalysis data with fine resolution and global coverage.

  • University Of Concepcion, Chile
  • Title:Gas Extraction Hood Modeling in a Steel Converter for Energy Recovery Using Phase Change Materials
  • Time :11:25 - 11:50 AM

Abstract
The steel industry is characterized by its energy-intensive processes. The steel forming process stands out, where the oxidation of carbon, when reacting, generates incomplete combustion gases at high temperature through the process basic oxygen injection in the furnace (BOF). A model of intermittent process and high temperature gas collection system is proposed and validated through experimental measurements. Through it, energy improvement opportunities are analyzed, highlighting energy recovery from high temperature flue gases by incorporating a phase change material (PCM) method for temporary energy storage. It was estimated that the fumes inside the hood could provide 77 GJ of available energy during the 15 min of oxygen injection (blowdown). With the use of a PCM device, between 13% and 32% residual energy recovery is obtained, equivalent to 10–25 GJ. In this way, a continuous heat flow could be generated during the whole process for steam generation through a cooling system in the gas collection system, with an electricity generation potential with a Rankine cycle of 14.5 MW.

Biography
Dr. Roberto Ramirez is a Professor and researcher at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Universidad de Concepción. He his Mechanical Engineer by profession and a teacher at heart. He consider myself a persevering, responsible and daring person, He always see challenges as an opportunity to grow. This is his first publication, which has been presented at national congresses of mechanical engineering students and Iberoamerican congress of mechanical engineering. He his currently working on energy projects at the community level and teaching pryects at the university level. His passionate about teaching because he believe it is the way to change the world and his faithfully believe that his students are capable of achieving change in the environmental paradigm. And He his looking for a doctorate in order to expand my knowledge and profession.

  • State University of Londrina, Brazil
  • Title:Urban Watershed Management Prioritization Using the Rapid Impact Assement Matrix (RIAM-UWMAP), GIS and Field Survey
  • Time :11:50 - 12:15 AM

Abstract
A badly planned and not sustainable urban growth can be the source of a series of environmental impacts. In Brazil, conventional urbanization processes have caused several environmental impacts such as water pollution, clandestine sewage or effluent discharge, floods, erosions, illegal solid waste disposal, damaged drainage structures with disconneted parts and landslides. An interesting possibility for sustainable urban planning are urban watersheds with a certain scales of prioritization. In the specialized literature, the watershed prioritization is discussed mostly for computational methods and models, not including the importance of field survey and headwater analysis, since most urban rivers are considered as headwaters (order 1). The aim of this work was to integrate on a GIS environment data of basin morphology (QSWAT+ tool with SRTM data), pedology (ITCG), land cover and use (MapBiomas) and the field survey data of vegetation, erosion, drainage infrastructure and the presence of solid waste and wastewater of the watersheds through the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) analysis, what we called RIAM-UWMAP to compare natural characteristics and urbanization to further create a prioritization order for management. The study occured in 27 urban headwaters within 8 watersheds of a medium size city in the North’s of Paraná State in Brazil. Results showed that poorly managed vegetation, drainage structures problems and conventional urbanization were the main variables that generate higher levels of prioritization (lowest value of the environmental score – es, urgent interventions). The examples are headwaters 2b (es = -390), 3b (es = -330), 4a (es = -354), 5b (es = -346) and 5c (es = -322). The positives “es” occured in locations where the sorroundings were primarily rural activities. In another words, places where urbanization was not implemented yet are an opportunity to be sustainable planned. The RIAM-UWMAP is an excellent tool for environmental diagnostic showing problems that cannot be seen through digital data and also give direction to municipal decision makers to allocate financial resources and faster interventions to points of urgency, avoiding the waste of time and money in locations where management was no necessarily urgent.

Biography
Dr. Marcos Vinicius Costa Rodrigues is a environmental engineer with masters in civil engineering focused on urban watersheds and environment impact assessment and environmental management. Professional with 6 years of experience in urban and environmental planning as project coordinator to cities within 10.000 to 150.000 inhabitants (afforestation, solid waste, wastewater, sewage, hydric resources, air pollution, sanitation, georeferencing) and 4 years experience in organic effluent treatment.

Co-Authors
Diego Vila Guimarães. Department of Geography. State University of Londrina.
Renan Borelli Galvão. Department of Civil Engineering, State University of Londrina.
Ellen Patrick. Deparment of Environmental Engineering. Dalhousie University.
Fernando Fernandes. Graduato Program in Civil Engineering. State University of Londrina.

  • Pusan National University , Republic of Korea
  • Title:Vertically Aligned CoMoS Nanosheet on PANI Nanowire as an Excellent Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting
  • Time :12:15 - 12:40 PM

Abstract
To achieve an efficient conversion of renewable energy sources through water splitting, low-cost, efficient, and eco-friendly catalysts are required for oxygen and hydrogen evolution. Here, we develop a vertically aligned cobalt molybdenum sulfide (CoMoS) nanosheets on a conductive polyaniline (PANI) nanowire on nickel foam (NF) by a one-step solvothermal synthesis. The macroporous nickel foam improve the carry of the O2 gas evolved, and vertically aligned CoMoS nanosheets on a three-dimensional PANI nanowire substrate form a hybrid architecture, promoting electrolyte penetration and the removal of gas bubbles, enabling firm touch between reactants and active sites, and generating smooth pathways for effective charge transport in the conductive channels. The hybrid CoMoS-PANI requires only 250 and 98 mV, to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm–2 in 1 M KOH, for the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, respectively. As an electrode for overall water splitting, CoMoS-PANI/NF, as both the anode and the cathode, shows a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at a low cell voltage, 1.58 V. Moreover, it possessed excellent durability during the 50 h stability test, suggests that CoMoS-PANI is an efficient and stable bifunctional catalyst. The upgraded electrocatalytic activity of CoMoS-PANI can be attributed to the synergistic interaction between Co, Mo, S, and PANI. First, the CoMoS nanosheets were grown on conductive PANI nanowire substrate as hybrid architectures, encouraging electrolyte piercing and the removal of gases, enabling strong contact between and reactants and active sites, and creating a smooth pathway for effective charge transportion. Second, the defect rich structure, S vacancies centered in the CoMoS nanosheet structure, and amines in the PANI nanowire create a high electrochemically active surface area and a large number of active sites, expose active interfaces, and maintain the conductivity. Finally, the effective inter-electron transfer between cobalt and molybdenum and the intra-electron transfer between PANI and CoMoS reduce the kinetic energy barrier of initial water dissociation and ion adsorption. Thus, these factors resulted in excellent augmented performance for OER, HER, and overall water splitting. This work creates a promising step towards the synthesis of hybrid materials as excellent electrocatalysts for renewable energy generation.

Biography
Dr. Sobin Mathew is Ph.D research fellow in Pusan National University, Division of Material science and engineering
Topics : Hybrid Materials, Water splitting, Electrochemistry, Hydrogen Fuel Cell.

  • Kyoto University, Japan
  • Title:Long-term Nationwide Spatiotemporal Changes and Trends of Freshwater Temperature in Japan (1982–2016)
  • Time :12:40 - 01:05 PM

Abstract
If the present rates of biodiversity loss continue, projections suggest that within 240 years Earth may face its sixth mass extinction. Because many fishes and amphibians, as well as crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic macroinvertebrates, are ectotherms, temperature is an important component of water quality that directly affects their growth rate and distribution Freshwater temperature is a physical water quality parameter of critical importance, and understanding the trends in freshwater temperature is important for identifying potential threats to the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.
We analyzed freshwater temperature data (based on “The Water Quality Survey of Public Water Areas” of the Ministry of the Environment) from 1982 to 2016 throughout Japan to better understand how waters are warming in Japan.
We used linear regression to determine the temperature change rate and Mann-Kendall tests to identify significant temporal trends in the annual maximum and mean temperatures. Among 11,240 monitoring sites screened, 159 with fewer missing values were selected for analysis.
On the basis of this analysis, we identified and ranked the sites showing significant temporal increasing or decreasing trends for future management. At nearly half (42%) of the analyzed sites, the annual mean freshwater temperature was increasing; thus, in the future, adverse impacts from warm temperatures may increase in those aquatic ecosystems. The temperature change rate of fresh water was higher than that of air, indicating that the observed increases in freshwater temperature were not due to atmospheric warming only. Among individual sites, the annual maximum freshwater temperature change rate ranged from -1.27 to 1.91 °C/decade, and the annual mean rate ranged from -1.13 to 1.28 °C/decade. Few other studies have reported decreasing temperatures for fresh water.
We expect our results will improve understanding of how freshwater temperatures are changing at a large scale, enhance understanding of human impacts on the aquatic environment, support effective management of ecosystems experiencing temperature changes, and help to minimize the loss of biodiversity over the next half century.
(Keywords: Air temperature, Freshwater temperature, Global warming, Japan, Spatiotemporal analysis, GIS.)
Biography
Dr. Satoshi Kameyama is a Senior Chief Researcher at Biodiversity Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies; JAPAN. He is a Specially Appointed Professor at The Kyoto University (Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research) and a lecturer at The University of Tokyo (The Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Science) in 2018. He is also working as visiting lecturer at VNU (Vietnam Japan University) in Vietnam National University. He received Ph.D. degrees from The Graduate School of Agriculture from The Hokkaido University in 1999. He is an editorial board member of The Remote Sensing Society of Japan from 2011. He is also a member of American Geophysical Union, American Fisheries Society, The Ecological Society of Japan, The Japanese Alpine Club etc. The main research topics of recent years are “Evaluation of ecosystem functions and services and their sustainable use” and “Watershed ecosystem restoration based on the recovery of migration pass and diadromous fish habitat using Environmental DNA” etc. The final goal (the dream) of his research is to realize sustainable regional community with high resilience to climate change harmonizing with nature.

  • Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Iran
  • Title:GIS-based Ensemble Computational Models for Flood Susceptibility Prediction in the Quang Binh Province, Vietnam
  • Time :02:05 - 02:30 PM

Abstract
Recently, floods are occurring more frequently every year around the world due to increased anthropogenic activities and climate change. There is a need to develop accurate models for flood susceptibility prediction and mapping, which can be helpful in developing more efficient flood management plans. In this study, the Partial Decision Tree (PART) classifier and the AdaBoost, Bagging, Dagging, and Random Subspace ensembles learning techniques were combined to develop novel GIS-based ensemble computational models (ABPART, BPART, DPART and RSSPART) for flood susceptibility mapping in the Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. In total, 351 flood locations were used in the model study. This data was divided into a 70:30 ratio for model training (70% ≅ 255 locations) and (30% ≅ 96 locations) for model validation. Ten flood influencing factors, namely elevation, slope, curvature, flow direction, flow accumulation, river density, distance from river, rainfall, land-use, and geology, were used for the development of models. The OneR feature selection method was used to select and prioritize important factors for the spatial modeling. The results revealed that land-use, geology, and slope are the most important conditioning factors in the occurrence of floods in the study area. Standard statistical methods, including the ROC curve (AUC), were used for the performance evaluation of models. Results indicated that the performance of all models was good (AUC > 0.9) and RSSPART (AUC = 0.959) outperformed the others. Thus, the RSSPART model can be used for accurately predicting and mapping flood susceptibility.
Biography
Dr. Mahdis Amiri, She is 27 years old, also her date of birth is May 16, 1994, Her Place of Birth is Shiraz, currently she is PhD student at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Department of Watershed & Arid Zone Management, Gorgan, Iran. She in the sixth semester. She hold a Bachelor and Master of Science degrees from the University of Shiraz. Her majors are Natural resource, Her master’s thesis title is Spatial Modeling of Gully Erosion and. She is currently working on Spatial modeling and multi-hazards. Also, She is very interested in Spatial Modelling of Gully erosion, Landslide, Fire Forest and Flood susceptibility also groundwater potential.

  • Federal Technological University of Parana, Brazil
  • Title:Quality Reference Values for Heavy Metals In Soils Developed from Basic Rocks under Tropical Conditions.
  • Time :02:30 - 02:55 PM

Abstract
Soil Quality Reference Values (QRV) refer to the natural heavy metal concentrations that is not influenced or is minimally influenced by anthropogenic activities. Such values are unique of each environment, and their extrapolation to different locations becomes inadequate. This research aimed to determine the natural concentrations of metals in soils (QRV) developed on essentially basaltic lithology and tropical conditions in the south of Brazil. Seventy-two soil samples from the Forest Conservation Areas in the west of the state of Paraná, Brazil, were obtained. The extraction and dosage of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn were carried out employing methods USEPA 3051a and ICP-OES. The QRV was set to 75th percentile of each element, from the detection and exclusion of the outliers. The natural concentration of all heavy metals was related to the geological context of the basaltic area in Brazil. There was no influence of the pedogenetic degree of soils on the natural heavy metal concentration. The only relevant process for reducing the natural heavy metal levels was the Fe and Mn oxide solubility promoted by hydromorphic conditions. Fe oxides had a significant role in the maintenance of structural and adsorbed heavy metal forms in soils. The results may help the research and monitoring of environmental heavy metals in soils developed from basalt under tropical conditions.

Biography
Dr. Juliane Maria Bergamin Bocardi has doctorate in Applied Chemistry, with an emphasis on Environmental Chemistry, from the State University of the Midwest, Paraná, Brazil (UNICENTRO). She has master’s degree in Applied Chemistry with an emphasis on Natural Products from the State University of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil (UEPG) and a degree in Chemistry from the State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE). She is currently Chemistry professor in the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Brazil, campus Medianeira (UTFPR). Develops activities in the areas of Environmental Chemistry such as environmental monitoring and control.

  • University of Rennes,France
  • Title:Improvement of Fermentation From Hydrolysate of Green Macroalgae for Bioethanol Production on a Lab- Scale and on a Pilot-Scale
  • Time :03:20 - 03:45 PM

Abstract
The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of ethanol bioproduction from hydrolysate of macroalgea. Firstly, experiments were carried out with a synthetic medium adjusted on algal hydrolysate composition with four yeast strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Nitrogen source, inoculum size and salt contents were examined.
Secondly, the study focused on the fermentation of hydrolysate from the green macroalgae Ulva rigida, confirming the possibility of converting algal hydrolysate into bioethanol, without nitrogen enrichment and sterilization. It was observed that pH regulation and aeration were not essential for the ethanol production. In these conditions, the experiment gave a concentration of 12 g L-1 and the conversion rate of glucose into bioethanol reached 82%. For the lab-scale assays, the media volume varied between 250 to 1 500 mL.
Finally, the scale up process was examined on a pilot scale (77 L) using S. cerevisiae growing on a hydrolysate of Chaetomorpha sp. This experiment gave a concentration of 5.6 g L-1 (lower than the results obtained during previous tests because of the limited hydrolysis yield), but with an efficiency of 97%.

Biography
Dr. Hayet DJELAL is Associate Professor at UniLasalle-Ecole des Métiers de l’Environnement, France. Her main research activities are related to Bioprocess Engineering, particularly chemical and bioprocesses development, development of elimination of micropollutants and biotreatment of industrial wastewater. She also works on aerobic and anaerobic fermentation technologies.
She supervised 7 PhD thesis concluded and 3 others are in progress, as well as more than 10 Master students. She has published 55 articles in scientific international journals with peer reviewing and she is associate editor of one scientific journal. She participated and coordinated several scientific projects with external financial support and she is implicated in national and international collaborations as Mexico, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon …

  • Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Russia
  • Title:Subcritical Nuclear Reactor Driven by ion Beams
  • Time :03:45 - 04:10 PM

Abstract
The performance of subcritical nuclear reactors driven by proton and ion beams (accelerator driven system- ADS) is analyzed and the advantage of ion beams is substantiated. The conditions which maximize the power production and the energy gain G (defined as the ratio of the power produced to the power spent for the beam acceleration), ensuring in the same time a safe exploitation are identified.
With a proper choice of the target G of 20-30 can be obtained.
The particle fluence and the energy released are obtained through simulation with Geant4. The power spent to accelerate the beam is calculated by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for a reference particle.
Cylindrical targets with rods of solid fuel (metallic alloy, oxide, carbide) in a bath of coolant are considered. The most significant influence on the energy released demonstrates the material used for the converter. The use of light materials increases the energy released especially for light ions at low energy. The best results are obtained with Be converter with length 100-120 cm.
The value of the criticality coefficient keff must be chosen as high as possible to maximize the power produced, but low enough to ensure a safe functioning of the reactor. The reactivity changes during various accident scenarios were analyzed in order to identify possible positive reactivity insertions. A value of 0.985 for keff ensures enough safety margin.
The results obtained with protons and ions beams from deuteron to 20Ne and energies from
0.2 to 2 AGeV, accelerated in a linac and interacting in U-Pu-Zr target with Be converter and keff 0.985 are presented. The beam intensity is 1.25‧1016, and the linac efficiency 0.18 for protons (values taken from the European Spallation Source project).
The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV, with a G of 10 and net power Pnet of 150 MW. G 2-3 times higher can be realized with ion beams. With a beam of 7Li with energy 0.25 AGeV one gets the same Pnet but with G of 18, and necessitates an accelerator 2.6 times shorter. At intermediate accelerator length beams of Li or Be are the best option (G 20-25, Pnet 350-400 MW). In an accelerator with the same length as for 1.5 GeV proton it is preferable to accelerate ions with higher mass (12C, 16O, 20Ne) getting a G~ 30 and Pnet~1 GW.

Biography
Dr. Mihaela Paraipan has completed her PhD from Politechnica University Bucharest, Romania.
She is working in present as senior researcher at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna , and she has more than 20 articles in peer reviewed journals.

  • Aalborg University, Denmark
  • Title:Optimized Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil into Ecofriendly Bio-based Polymeric Surfactant- A Solution for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Green Fuel Compatibility
  • Time :04:30 - 04:55 PM

Abstract
Waste cooking oil (WCO) is generally considered a global waste but with prospective for secondary use such as fuels or chemicals. In the present work, functionalizing of WCO to polymeric surfactants through a cleaner approach with high emulsification ability for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of fossil crude and enhanced biocrudes solubility in petroleum crudes is proposed. The influence of synthesis conditions (temperature, time and concentration of reactants) on intermediates and the resulting polymeric surfactants was investigated. Products were characterized by UV-Vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and DLS technique, and particle stability and Zeta potential were evaluated. The results showed the high stability of the fossil crude-surfactant-brine emulsion. The affinity of the polymeric surfactant for EOR under Danish reservoir was also investigated. It was observed that the IFT of brine-surfactant emulsion (31.35 dynes/cm) was reduced to almost half compared to neat saline water (68.82 dynes/cm), and that the viscosity of fossil crude oil in presence of polymeric surfactant was significantly decreased. Finally, the polymeric surfactant was employed to assess compatibility of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis biocrudes with fossil refinery streams with an aim to promote their integration into existing refinery. Consequently, the correlation between compatibility and molecular structure was drawn based on the experimental investigation on miscibility studies. The results obtained during the phase behaviour and IFT studies showed the high emulsification ability of functionalized polymeric surfactant for the enhanced crude oil recovery at reservoir conditions. In conclusion, the study introduces the concept of reusing WCO as an ecofriendly polymeric surfactant for EOR and green fuel compatibility enhancer.

Biography
Dr. Kamaldeep Sharma is Postdoctoral-Fellow in advanced biofuels group at Aalborg University, Denmark. Kamaldeep received Bachelor’s, Master’s and Ph.D. degrees from Guru Nanak Dev University, India. He is a pioneer in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and has several years’ experience in catalysts synthesis for photocatalytic and catalytic conversion processes for the synthesis of value added chemicals. Additionally, he has also 2 years’ experience in hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic upgrading of bio-oils. His recent research activities include the synthesis of catalysts from industrial wastes as well as utilization of different wastes (agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and sewage sludge) for the production of biofuels. He has published several research articles and book chapters in peer-reviewed journals of international repute. He is currently working in a couple of Danish and European Union research projects during his stay at Aalborg University. He is guest editor of a special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073) belongs to the section ‘‘Bio-Energy’’.

  • Federal University of Pará, Brazil
  • Title:Legacies on the ground. Assessing ancient plant management in the Lower Amazon
  • Time :04:55 - 05:20 PM

Abstract
Plant management and human development are entangled in Amazonia, where landscape transformations such as cultural forests and anthrosols are associated with archaeological sites. The highly fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are anthropogenic soils that figure as a major human footprint in Amazonian landscapes. Numerous ancient Tapajó settlements dated to the Late Pre-Columbian period (AD 1000-1600) within the Santarem region present ADEs. This paper presents the main results from an archaeobotanical study in three sites recovering a diversity of food and non-food plants through phytolith analysis in samples from domestic contexts and test pits profiles. Domesticates included maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and squash (Cucurbita sp.), whereas palms (peach palm/tucumã, açaí palm), tubers (Marantaceae) and fruit trees (Annonaceae, Burseraceae and Celtis sp.) were the main native plants recovered in samples from the three sites. These phytoliths and anthropogenic soils are addressed as legacies from past human plant consumption and assess ancient soil and vegetal management strategies.

Biography
Dr. Daiana T. Alves is currently a full-time Professor at the Federal University of Pará, Brazil. She has a BA in History (2009) and an MA in Anthropology/Archaeology (2012) from the Federal University of Pará and a PhD in Archeology (2017) from the University of Exeter (United Kingdom). She is chief editor of the Amazônica-Anthropology Journal and a member of the Society for Brazilian Archeology (SAB), Society for American Archeology (SAA) and International Phytolith Society (IPS). She leads the Research Group on Amazonian Archaeology – Tapera, investigating plants’ production and consumption in the Pre-Columbian Amazon. Her research focuses on Pre-Columbian land-uses, food production strategies and social changes in Amazonia by integrating archaeology, ethnohistory, geochemistry, and Palaeoethnobotany approaches. A particular interest is the formation of Amazonian Dark Earth anthrosols associated with late Holocene archaeological sites.

  • Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
  • Title:Food Loss and Waste in the Context of the Circular Economy: a Systematic Review
  • Time :05:20 - 05:45 PM

Abstract
About 30% of food produced globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. In this sense, the objective of this research is to identify and systematize scientific publications relating food losses and wastes with solutions based on the concept of circular economy. Through inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 articles were identified, until April 2020, which were analysed using the StArt tool. The papers were analysed based on the five categories selected in this study: definitions of food losses and wastes, quantification of food losses and wastes, solutions for food losses and wastes, examples of circular economy, relationship between food losses and wastes circular economy and food. The publications on the theme are from 2011, being mostly reviews until 2018 and case studies in the last two years. Developed countries, mainly European, have more publications. It is worth mentioning that there is no specific concept for food losses and wastes, which makes it difficult to quantify. The concept of circular economy is more related in terms of reduction, reuse and recycling than the idea of a systematic change in the food supply chain. The need for future studies that associate food losses and wastes with the circular economy remains a global challenge, especially for developing countries.

Biography
Dr. Mariana Martins de Oliveira has a Master’s in Agribusiness from the Federal University of Santa Maria – UFSM / Palmeira das Missões. She graduated in Environmental Engineering from the University of Vale do Itajaí-UNIVALI. She worked in the Environmental Management of the Port of Itajaí. She participated in the Agro Leadership Development Program promoted by the National Agriculture Confederation, ranking among the finalists to represent Rio Grande do Sul in the National stage in Brasília. She also participated in the Young Champions of the Earth Award promoted by the UN Environment, where her project was selected among the 50 best. By reconciling the academic area with the technical area, she provided environmental consultancy services to rural unions in the region. She is currently Coordinator of the Municipal Environment Department of the Palmeira das Missões City Hall. She is also a partner owner of TopoMen Palmeira das Missões, working in the areas of georeferencing, topography and environmental licensing. In the research she is interested in the environmental and agribusiness areas related to waste management, food loss and waste, circular economy.

  • Brazilian Biorenewables National Laboratory, Brazil
  • Title:Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Associated with Vinasse and Biochar on the Dynamics of the Microbiota and N2O Emission in Soil Under Energy Cane Cultivation
  • Time :02:55 - 03:20 PM

Abstract
In the face of world pressure, the Brazilian sugar-energy sector has been optimizing and using more sustainable agricultural practices. Among them is the planting of new varieties, such as energy cane, i.e., hybrids of Saccharum spp. used for biomass production, showing higher fiber and biomass content, less edaphoclimatic requirements, and more resistance to pests and diseases. In addition to the use of these new varieties, optimizing management practices that encompass the crop production cycle, such as the use of nitrogen fertilizers by the industry, is necessary for the efficiency of the system. These fertilizers are known to be responsible for N2O emissions. Plants use less than 50% of the applied fertilizer, so at least twice as much as it is necessary to be applied for crop growth and production, and what is not absorbed remains in the soil or gets lost into the atmosphere. The reuse of agro- industrial residues also is a major differential of the sugar-energy sector because it promotes cost reduction and prevents incorrect disposal. Biochar or pyrogenic coal are also possibilities besides vinasse and straw, already widespread. In this context, we will present a study that aims to propose mainly microbiological indicators as a function of energy cane response to nitrogen fertilizer doses and application of co-products from the sugar-energy industry (vinasse and biochar) to mitigate GHG of anthropogenic origin to reduce the contribution of agriculture to global warming.

Biography
Dr. Mara Regina Moitinho Graduated in Biological Sciences at the Centro Universitário da Grande Dourados (2010), MSc in Agronomy (Soil Science) from the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2013), PhD in Agronomy (Soil Science) from the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2017), postdoctoral fellow in Agronomy (Soil Science) at the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (2018), postdoctoral fellow in Agronomy (Soil Microbiology) at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRAE – Dijon, France) (2020), with postdoctoral studies in progress in the area of Soil Sustainability at the National Biorenovables Laboratory (LNBR), Campinas, SP. She has experience in the area of Agroecology, with an emphasis on agroforestry systems, green manure, characterization of soil CO2 and N2O emissions according to soil physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes and classical and multivariate statistics.

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