Day3

  • University of Cape Coast, Ghana
  • Title:Prioritizing Zero-waste Performance and Green Differentiation Advantage Through the Prism of Circular Principles Adoption: A Mediated Approach
  • Time :

Abstract
Circular economy has become one of the mainstream concepts to deal with environmental issues. However, research on the circularity theme (especially at the firm-level) is still evolving. Taking inspiration from the natural resource-based view and practice-based view theoretical lenses, this study proposes a research framework that explores the direct and indirect relationships between circular principles adoption, cleaner production, total quality environmental management, zero-waste performance and green differentiation advantage. The explanatory research design, with a questionnaire-based survey methodology, was employed to address the focal objective of the study. Data for the study was drawn from Ghanaian manufacturing SMEs. The study utilizes partial least-square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the hypothesized relationships and validate the proposed research model. The results suggest that circular principles adoption alone may have an insignificant impact on zero-waste performance and green differentiation advantage. However, circular principles adoption can lead to the effective implementation of cleaner production and total quality environmental management. The results also reveal that both cleaner production and total quality environmental management bring about a significant influence on zero-waste performance and green differentiation advantage. The originality of this work stems from developing a novel research framework that establishes cleaner production and total quality environmental management as important indirect mechanisms through which circular principles adoption can significantly influence zero-waste performance and green differentiation advantage. The theoretical, managerial and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

Biography
Dr.Gloria Kakrabah-Quarshie Agyapong is a Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. She holds a PhD in Business Administration and a Professional Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing from the Chartered Institute of Marketing, UK. Her research interests include service quality management, total quality management, public sector marketing communications, and social media advertising.

  • Ayodeji Olalekan Salau, Nigeria
  • Title:Modeling and Performance Analysis of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on ZnO Compact Layer and TiO2 Photoanode
  • Time :

Abstract
Renewable energy, especially solar energy is a vital alternative solution to power challenge in these present times. More recently, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) play an important role in solar power generation. The performance of DSSC can be increased by adding more cells to a cell stack in a Tandem cell with a separate band gap. A double-layer structured DSSC was analyzed in this study in which ZnO and TiO2 composite photo-anodes were prepared on Fluorine-doped tin oxide. Photovoltaic properties such as current–voltage (I-V) and photocurrent density–voltage curves were investigated for different thickness, absorption coefficients, and wavelengths. DSSC solar cell characterization technique such as I-V measurement was analyzed to evaluate the cells performance. The experimental results show an approximate increase in current of 0.02 A causing the I-V characteristics to change significantly when ZnO and TiO2 are combined. In addition, it was observed that as the J-V characteristics of TiO2 varies with electrode thickness, the current density Jsc increases simultaneously and reaches its peak point at 10 μm.

Biography
Dr. Ayodeji Olalekan Salau have received his B.Eng. in Electrical/Computer Engineering from the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. He received his MSc and PhD degree in Electronic and Electrical Engineering from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. His research interests include research in the fields of computer vision, image processing, signal processing, machine learning, power systems engineering, and nuclear engineering. Dr. Salau serves as a reviewer for numerous reputable international journals. His research has been published in a number of reputable international conferences, books, and major international journals. He is a registered Engineer with the Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN), a member of the International Association of Engineers (IAENG), and a recipient of the Quarterly Franklin Membership with ID number CR32878 given by the Editorial Board of London Journals Press in 2020 for top quality research output. In addition, Dr. Salau’s paper was awarded the best paper of the year 2019 in Cogent Engineering. Furthermore, he is the recipient of the International Research Award on New Science Inventions (NESIN) under the category of “Best Researcher Award” given by ScienceFather in 2020. He is the recipient of the International Best Researcher Award given by the ISSN International Science & Technology Awarding body (IISTAC-2022) in 2022. Also, he was also awarded the best researcher award for the year 2020-2022 by the Chancellor of Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD), Nigeria. Presently, Dr. Salau works at Afe Babalola University in the Department of Electrical/Electronics and Computer Engineering.

  • Federal Technological University of Parana, Brazil
  • Title:Modeling of the Dispersion of Pollutants in Porous Media: Case of a Landfill in Brazil
  • Time :09:15 - 09:30 AM

Abstract
Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal systems are still a sanitary and environmental problem. The high concentration of toxic substances existing in liquids arising from the decomposition of waste, present a risk to human health and the environment. It is necessary to establish mechanisms to predict leachate dispersion in order to determine possible scenarios and control systems. This work investigates the dispersion of leachate from urban solid waste through saturated soil. The municipal landfill of Jacarezinho in Brazil is the focus of the study. The conceptual model was based on existing data from geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and leachate characterization. The codes MODFLOW and MT3DMS were used and the dispersion of chromium, copper, lead and zinc was simulated. Pollutant mass concentration fields were calculated in 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years. The results indicated that the pollutants could reach the Ouro Grande River, in a period of 5 years and the tributary in a period of 1 year of the initial generation of leachate. For the final period of the simulation, the tributary of the Ouro Grande River received copper and lead concentrations that exceeded the maximum values allowed in Brazilian legislation for the watercourse quality standard. It was concluded that the Jacarezinho landfill has the potential to pollute the surrounding soil and groundwater.

Biography
Dr. Jonathan Steven M. F was Born in Colombia. He is an Environmental Engineer graduated from the Meta University Corporation in Colombia (2014), Specialist in Safety and Health at Work from the University of Los Llanos in Colombia (2016), obtained Master´s degree from Environmental Science and Technology from the Federal Technological University of Paraná in Brazil (2020). He has 7 years of experience as an environmental engineer in solid waste management companies and 5 years of experience as an undergraduate university professor. Since 2016 he has been a professor at the Faculty of Environmental Engineering of the Santo Tomas University in Colombia, where he has directed several final papers, most of them related to solid waste. Currently, he is a researcher at the Universidad Santo Tomás and works in the area of Green Chemistry and environmental simulation.

  • Wageningen University, Netherland
  • Title:Sustainability for Drinking Water Reservoirs: Central Softening and Floating Solar panels
  • Time :09:30 - 09:45 AM

Abstract
Drinking water utilities in the Netherlands aim to reduce the CO2 footprint in order to become CO2 neutral in the coming years. A preferred route to achieve this is by reducing the CO2 footprint in the primary drinking water production processes. This can be done by using more sustainable chemicals, recycling residual/waste streams and by modifying the production process, for example by applying central softening.
We recently published a paper in which we demonstrate that central softening in drinking water production leads to a net reduction of the carbon footprint. The full life cycle assessment shows that the detrimental contributions to the carbon footprint, due to the use of chemicals and energy for central softening, are outweighed by the beneficial contributions at the household level, where reduced scaling leads to prolonged lifespan of appliances, reduced energy consumption and reduced use of cleaning agents. We estimate that the net total carbon footprint of drinking water softening in the Netherlands is around -0.11 Mtons CO2 equivalent per year.
Nevertheless, CO2 neutrality cannot be achieved by only focusing on reduced emissions in the primary production processes. Part of the CO2 footprint reduction needs to come from compensation, one way to achieve this is by employing floating solar panels. However, little is known on the effects of floating solar at large scale on water quality and ecology. We therefore designed a floating solar pilot and installed this on one of the water reservoirs (depth <4m) at Evides Water Company, a company based in the south of the Netherlands. Evides relies mostly on surface water for the production of drinking water, and river water is stored in large reservoirs. Several quality parameters have been monitored over multiple years, which include: 1) physico-chemical (oxygen, temperature, organic carbon, heavy metals, etc.), 2) microbiological (fecal bacteria) and 3) (hydro)biological (birds, water plants, plankton. Biography
Dr. Albert van der Wal currently leads the R&D team for drinking water production at Evides Water Company and is professor at Wageningen University (NL), specialized in sustainable (drinking) water production with focus on membrane filtration, capacitive deionization (CapDI) for water softening and desalination, removal of organic micropolltants and sand and biological activated carbon filtration. He obtained a PhD in Physical Chemistry and Microbiology.

  • University of Missouri-Kansas City, United States
  • Title:Heat Transfer Enhancement and Optimization Analysis of Energy Storage Based Solar Thermal Collector
  • Time :09:45 - 10:00 AM

Abstract
The application of solar water heating systems (SWHs) has attracted many attentions in recent years. The main component of a SWH system is the solar collector, and among various types of solar collectors, heat pipe evacuated tube solar collectors (HPETCs) are widely used. However, due to the intermittency in solar intensity, the HPETCs may not work at their maximum functionality. In this study, performance optimization of an HPETC integrated with phase change materials (PCMs), is investigated under normal and on-demand (stagnation) operations via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. In phase-I, the effect of heat pipe position on the overall performance of the collector is investigated. The results from phase-I show that the phase change process of PCM was expedited by 48 minutes under on-demand operation, for the collector with heat pipe in center, compared with conventional system (heat pipe at top), where in normal operation, the thermal energy storage enhancement is achieved, for the collector with heat pipe in center, by 24% increase in PCM’s melting fraction . In phase-II, the effect of various types of PCMs are investigated, where tritriacontane paraffin, xylitol, and erythritol are selected. In normal mode, the maximum exhibited total energy storage of 295.39 kJ/kg was acheived for paraffin tube, however, the fin temperature of xylitol tube was around 10 °C higher compared with the other tubes throughout the day. In on-demand operation, the maximum energy storage of 413.15 kJ/kg was achived for erythritol tube, however, the paraffin tube shows fin temperature difference of 14 °C compared with other tubes. Consequently, utilization of dual PCM of paraffin/xylitol in normal and paraffin/erythritol in on-demand operations is recommended to enhance system’s thermal performance. The results from this study can be a benchmark for further optimization of HPETCs in thermal energy storage systems.

Biography
Dr. Sarvenaz Sobhansarbandi is an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and director of Advanced Renewable/Thermal Energy (ART-E) laboratory at University of Missouri-Kansas city in United Staes. Her research interests include renewable energy, solar energy and computational fluid dynamics focusing on energy analysis of solar thermal collectors. She is also interested in Hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology with application in stationary and portable power generation systems. She has gained several years of research experience in the broad area of Thermo-Fluids, particularly solar energy technology and thermal energy storage materials. She had exposure to design/modeling of technical issues both by simulation and in real field-testing. She is the recipient of Funding for Excellence (FFE) award, ASME 2017 best paper award and ASHRAE 2015-2016 award from North Texas section.

  • Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
  • Title:Modeling of Catalytic Pyrolysis of Metallized Food Packaging Plastics Over Zeolite Catalyst
  • Time :10:00 - 10:15 AM

Abstract
Metallized food packaging plastics waste (MFPW) is the most complex waste of food packaging. Recently, the pyrolysis treatment has been used to decompose the plastic part of MFPW into paraffin wax product, while the metal fraction (aluminum) remained mixed with black carbon. In order to upgrade the wax products usually, catalytic pyrolysis is used. Within this frame, this research aims to study the catalytic pyrolysis behaviour of MFPW over ZSM-5 Zeolite catalyst with MFPW to catalyst ratios=10, 30, and 50 wt.%. Also, the composition of the obtained chemical compounds was determined using TG-FTIR and GC–MS system. After that, the catalytic pyrolysis kinetic of ZSM-5/MFPW were modelled using linear isoconversional method, distributed activation energy model (DAEM), and an independent parallel reaction kinetic model (IPR). The FTIR and GC-MS results showed that Benzene, Toluene, Hexane, methane, etc. was the main functional group and compounds and their intensity increase as concentration of ZSM-5 increasing. While the kinetics results showed that the activation energies were in the ranges of 174-289 kJ/mol. At the same time DAEM and IPR models succeeded to plot TGA-DTG curves with lower deviations.
Samy Yousef, senior researcher at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Kaunas University of Technology.

Biography
Dr. Samy Yousef has completed his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. After that, he obtained postdoctoral studies from Messina University, Italy, and University of Technology, Lithuania (two years). Since 2018, He is Associate Professor, senior researcher at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Kaunas University of Technology. He has published more than 58 papers (Scopus) in reputed journals with total impact factor >200 and H index (18). During the last four years, He has achieved several promising results in materials recovery from different wastes such as WEEE, food packaging plastics, solar cells, textile, glass fibre reinforced polymer composites, and banknote waste, etc. then reprocessing of extracting metals into high added value products and adapting laboratory technology for industrial scale and Circular Economy principles. Also, he participated in developing many sustainable energy conversion strategies for textile waste, clothes dryer, plastic waste, end-of-life cotton banknotes into energy products using pyrolysis technology.

  • Lappeenranta, Finland
  • Title:Use of Real Options to Enhance Eater-energy Nexus in Mine Tailings Management
  • Time :10:15 - 10:30 AM

Abstract
Mine tailings are waste obtained after processing mineral ore to acquire element(s) of interest. They are a mixture of ground rocks with process effluents. The largest water sink at most mines is the tailing storage facility and inappropriate management of water content in mine tailings can become a threat to its stability, and consequently, its environmental safety. Also, for reasons pertaining to water scarcity, water reuse and recycling is a plausible option to mining companies. Proper handling of mine tailings and water supply management can considerably improve the water-energy nexus. In this article, we evaluate the water-energy nexus in copper mining companies using a water reduction model focused on mine tailing facilities and water supply to the mine site to find the trade-offs between water and energy. To find out about the economic outcomes of the options covered by the analysis, project valuation techniques with a real options approach are used. This approach deploys Monte Carlo simulation to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to evaluate every cost component of each water management strategy. Results show that where seawater is supplied to the mine site, improving the reuse of water by using dewatering technologies will improve the water-energy nexus. Even though the costs of these technologies are elevated in comparison to traditional disposal method because they are energy-intensive, the reduction of water requirements in the mine will reduce the cost of its treatment and transport which accounts for a large proportion of the total cost.
Biography
Dr. Natalia Araya has a PhD in Mineral Processing Engineering from Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile and she is a doctoral student in Industrial Engineering and Management program at LUT University in Lappeenranta, Finland under a double degree agreement between both Universities. Her topic is on mine tailings water management for a sustainable mining industry. Her research interests are mine tailings management and valorization, water management in mining, sustainable development in mining, circular economy in mining.

  • Geophysical Institute of Peru, Peru
  • Title:On the Dynamic Mechanisms of Intense Rainfall Events in the Central Andes of Peru, Mantaro Valley
  • Time :10:30 -10:45 AM

Abstract
The present study was aimed at analyzing the main atmospheric dynamic mechanisms associated with the occurrence of intense rainfall events above the Huancayo observatory (12.05°S, 75.32°W, 3313 m asl) in the central Andes of Perú (Mantaro valley) from January 2018 to April 2019. To identify the rainfall events, we used a set of instruments from the laboratory of physics, microphysics and radiation (LAMAR) composed by in-situ pluviometric observations, satellite remote sensing data (GPM), Cloud Radar (MIRA- 35c), Boundary Layer Tropospheric Radar (BLTR) and downscaling model simulations with WRF (resolutions: 18 km, 6 km and 2 km) and ARPS (0.5 km) models to analyze the dynamics of the atmosphere for the synoptic, meso and local processes that control the occurrence of these rainfall events. The results showed that all intense rainfall events are associated with the presence of thermal meso-scale circulations that transport moisture fluxes through passes with gentle slopes along both sides of the Andes. The easterly moisture fluxes come in from the South America Low Level Jet (SALLJ) and the westerly moisture fluxes from the Pacific Ocean. The arrival of these moisture flows to regions within the Mantaro valley depends on their coupling with the circulations at medium and high levels of the atmosphere. At the synoptic scale, the results show that the rainfall events can be separated into two groups: the first one associated with westerly circulations (WC) at the mid and upper levels of the atmosphere, generated by the weakening and eastern displacement of the anticyclonic Bolivian high-North east low (BH-NE) system, and the second associated with easterly circulations (EC) at the mid and upper levels of the atmosphere, generated by the intensification of the BH-NE system. The observed and simulated results showed that multicell convective systems of WC events are more extensive and deeper than EC events. This situation can be explained as the convergence of moisture fluxes from opposite directions occurred within the Mantaro basin for WC events. In contrast, for EC events, the convergence develops at the east Andes mountain range, following which the multicell storm system propagates westward, driven by easterly circulations. The EC events occur mostly in the summer months, while the WC events occur mostly in the autumn and spring months. Moreover, apparently the inertia gravity waves (IGWs) formed in the Amazon basin transport moisture and energy to the central Andes plateau and intensify the convection processes.

Biography
Dr. Jose Flores Rojas Graduated in Physics at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, master in Physics at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, master in Meteorology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). He is Doctor in atmospheric sciences by the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Sao Paulo (IAG-USP). He has experience in the areas of Physics and Geosciences, with emphasis on Quantum Physics, Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, acting mainly on the following topics: Quantum Optics, Solar and Terrestrial Radiation, Meso Meteorology and Microscale and Earth Physics.

  • Khalifa University of Science and Technology, United Arab Emirates
  • Title:Unconventional Resources, Hydraulic Fracturing, Water Management and Insights for Middle Eastern Reservoirs
  • Time :10:45 - 11:00 AM

Abstract
Water has been regarded as one of most important resources in the industrial sector and plays a pivotal role in the hydrocarbon industry. With modern advancements in technology, enhanced agricultural production and urbanization, numerous regions across the globe are currently facing water stress. Coupled with rapid population growth and energy demands, it is imperative to understand the influence of water resources within the hydrocarbon industry and examine current water management strategies. It is a need of the hour to enhance current strategies to source water more efficiently, especially within water scarce regions such as the Middle East.
Unconventional resources have significantly contributed to the modern energy market. However, extraction of hydrocarbon from unconventional reservoirs is heavily water-intensive as compared to conventional reservoirs. This comprehensive investigation analyzes key design parameters that affect productivity within typical Middle Eastern shale gas reservoirs. In addition, simple constrained cases were constructed to better understand the influence of these parameters with respect to the overall production and water requirement. Furthermore, potential regional challenges along with resource management strategies are also highlighted.
Biography
Dr. Rahman is an associate professor and has been teaching and conducting research since 2002 and has PhD in Petroleum Engineering from the University of New South Wales, Australia. He published over 70 articles in the area of well stimulation, specifically in hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, and enhanced/improved oil and gas recovery and produced two patents. He was/is investigator of several external and internal funded research projects (funded by Abu Dhabi National Oil Company and Khalifa University). He served as technical committee member for several SPE conferences and workshops.

  • CEA French Atomic Commission - Energy Division - Marcoule Center- Dismantling and Waste Conditioning Department, France
  • Title:Management of Highly Radioactive Nuclear Waste coming from Nuclear Power Plants : Materials, Processes and Long-term Performance Assessment
  • Time :11:15- 11:30 AM

Abstract
This presentation is devoted to highly radioactive nuclear waste management, all around the world. A synthesis of the high level waste (HLW) typology and key characteristics is given, showing that nuclear glass and spent nuclear fuel need to be considered for long term disposal, depending on national strategies. A rationale for selecting a relevant conditioning process is then presented, describing the parameters and constraints to take into account. A brief description of the vitrification processes, the sole industrially deployed conditioning process for HLW, is then presented. The vitrified waste interim storage strategy is described. The knowledge about the long term performance of HLW, spent nuclear fuel and nuclear glass, in geological disposal is then detailed. Finally, the development of alternative conditioning processes for HLW are briefly presented.

Biography
Dr. Florence Bart is 56 years old and have a PhD “Material Sciences” – Glass Science and
15 years in R&D for Nuclear Waste Conditioning, especially in vitrification, cementation of effluents and solids and
15 years in Projects and Teams Management and 40 papers, several international collaborations, participation to many IAEA technical meetings, international conferences.

  • James Cook University , Singapore
  • Title: A Circular Economy Approach to Green Energy: Wind Turbine, Waste, and Material Recovery
  • Time :11:30- 11:45 AM

Abstract
Wind energy has been considered as one of the greenest renewable energy
sources over the last two decades. However, attention is turning to reducing the possible environmental impacts from this sector. We argue that wind energy would not be effectively ‘‘green” if anthropogenic materials are not given attention in a responsible manner. Using the concept of the circular economy, this paper considers how anthropogenic materials in the form of carbon fibers can reenter the circular economy system at the highest possible quality.b This paper first investigates the viability of a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer extraction process using thermal pyrolysis to recalibrate the maximum carbon fiber value by examining the effect of (a) heating rate, (b) temperature, and (c) inert gas flow rate on char yield. With cleaner and higher quality recovered carbon fibers, this paper discusses the economic preconditions for the takeoff and growth of the industry and recommends the reuse of extracted carbon fibers to close the circular economy loop.

Biography
Professor Adrian T. H. Kuah has investigated circular economy practices in Asia, measured perceptions toward remanufactured goods in the UK, examined photovoltaic tax incentives in China, and provided insights on material circular economy using composite recovery. In 2019, he was appointed by the Government to partake and represent Singapore’s interest in the standardization of ISO/TC 323 Circular Economy at the ISO. For his thought leadership, he was interviewed by leading newspapers such as the Financial Times, Straits Times, Cairns Post and Xinhua News, as well as by media such as the Australian WIN TV News. He has received a couple of citations, including Financial Times Professor of the Week (2013) and Oxford Scholarship (2014). He is a research leader at both The Cairns Institute, Australia and Centre for International Trade and Business in Asia, Singapore. He is also Professor at Ecole de Commerce de Tahiti in the French Polynesia. He received his Ph.D from the University of Manchester, ITP from SDA Bocconi, MBA from University of Strathclyde, and B.Eng from the Nanyang Technological University.

  • Systems Engineering Department, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Event-Triggered Feedback Control for Distributed Systems
  • Time :12:00 - 12:15 PM

Abstract
An integral ingredient to the operation of industrial or engineering systems, including cooperative robotics, sensor networks, and grid computing, is that its control architecture consisting of hardware and software protocols for exchanging system status and control signals. Current trends to control and monitor the operation of industrial or engineering systems are moving toward the use of an automated agent technology or distributed networked systems (DNS). A distributed networked system is a combination of several units working in collaboration pursuing assigned tasks to achieve the overall goal of the system.
In this presentation, we focus control strategies pertaining to DNS. Specifically, we address the issue of event-triggered feedback strategy in which the unit (local) control is equipped with additional information from neighbors (unit-to-unit communication) to achieve the global motion-coordination task. Our main goal is illuminate the merits/demerits of the foregoing strategy as well as the potential applications.

Biography
Dr. Magdi S. Mahmoud has been a Professor of Engineering since 1984. He is now a Distinguished Professor at KFUPM, Saudi Arabia. He served at different universities worldwide including Egypt (CU, AUC), Kuwait (KU), UAE (UAEU), UK (UMIST), USA (Pitt, Case Western), Singapore (Nanyang) and Australia (Adelaide). He lectured in Venezuela (Caracas), Germany (Hanover), UK ((Kent), USA (UoSA), Canada (Montreal) and China (BIT, Yanshan). He is the principal author of fifty-one (51) books, inclusive book-chapters and the author/co-author of more than 610 peer-reviewed papers. He is a fellow of the IEE, a senior member of the IEEE, the CEI (UK), and a registered consultant engineer of information engineering and systems (Egypt).

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Renewable Energy from Lake Kivu, a Very Large Natural Digester
  • Time :12:15 - 12:30 PM

Abstract
Lake Kivu is located on the top of the African rift zone, between Rwanda and DR Congo. From banks of frozen lava in the catchment area of the lake, inflows of saline water to the lower levels of this 485 m deep lake generate a special system of ‘lids’ that hold down dissolved matter and thus also gases produced in its depths by anaerobic digestion of dead algae and other organic matter. In this way, the lake is unique; in its 500 km³ of water, it holds around 60 km³ of dissolved methane. It is probably the world’s largest natural digester of biomass generated in the upper, oxygenated layers of the lake. Not only gases but also nutrients are accumulated in the depths of the lake and when harvesting the gases, in a cyclic process some of these nutrients are brought to the surface, generating more biomass that sinks and generates more gas, thus enhancing the natural gas production.
At present, the main ‘lid’ in the lake holds the gases down at levels from where it may be accumulated and harvested without causing an eruption, but this ‘lid’ is lifting, and gases continue to accumulate. This situation constitutes a challenge; society must for all foreseeable future actively prevent eruptions of this lake like it happened in Lake Albano, Italy (396 BC) and in lakes Monoun and Nyos, Cameroon (1984 and 1986). An eruption of this lake could cause from hundreds of thousands to a few millions of casualties.
Done in the right way however, gas accumulation also constitutes an opportunity for continued extraction of renewable methane as the best tool to avoid future eruptions. This gas may be used e.g. for power production or for cooking in a deforested, populated area. Achieving this is not straight-forward. It is unusually multidisciplinary and complex to understand the lake’s special transport mechanisms and, on this basis, to define what the need for safe management and sustainability requires from developers and administrators. This understanding has only recently matured to such level that it may be used to define precise and unusual design requirements to developers. Only in this way can we in the centuries to come implement continued risk control while maximizing the use of this renewable resource. The presentation will explain these extraordinary conditions as well as the solutions.
Biography
Dr. Finn Hirslund has a MSc in chemical process engineering having specialized in dynamic processes and in energy efficiency. He has spent most of his professional life within the natural gas industry, designing natural gas treatment facilities while minimizing their risk and environmental impacts. Since 2005 Hirslund has been involved in assessing gas extraction methods from Lake Kivu as well as their impacts on the lake. As such he became a key member of the group of engineers and scientists that in 2007 to 2009 drafted (preliminary) rules for safe gas extraction from the lake. At that time, the scientific basis for this work was insufficient and partly erroneous. Hirslund therefore undertook studies in limnology and palaeolimnology, reaching a level sufficing to propose significant modifications to existing theory regarding the special transport mechanisms in this lake and published four papers (totalling 92 pages) on this subject. He has participated in four workshops on gas extraction from Lake Kivu and organized one of them. On this basis, since 2011, he has advised the Government of Rwanda on different aspects of safe and sustainable gas extraction and is at present likely the World’s leading expert in safe and sustainable gas extraction from Lake Kivu.

  • Rosen College University of Central Florida ,USA
  • Title:Extending Tourism Competitiveness to Human Development
  • Time :12:30 - 12:45 PM

Abstract
The study examines a recursive dynamic between tourism competiveness and human development. While, a connection between two concepts is arguable, tourism competitiveness provides the resources necessary to support and sustain expansion of human developments. Higher income countries exhibit healthier, productive and longer leaving populace relative to lower income countries. Thus, indicating that high income matters in shaping and supporting human development. Tourism competitiveness provides a chance to increase income opportunities and improve human development growth that includes one’s health, education and skill which in turn contribute to the increase in tourism competitiveness. However, little is known about nature, influences and dynamics between tourism competitiveness and human development. The study asses several research questions: 1. What creates the theoretical connection between tourism competitiveness and human development? 2. Does this connection explains differences in tourism competitiveness over time.

Biography
Dr. Valeriya Shapoval is an assistant professor at the University of Central Florida with areas of expertise in tourism, organizational psychology and big data analytics. She had published in the top hospitality and tourism journal such as Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Travel Research and many others. Currently she is a managing editor of International Journal of Hospitality Management that is a 4th leading journal in the hospitality and tourism with SSCI impact factor of 4.46. She is a part of the Dick Pope Jr. Institute at Rosen college and was part of several international projects in the Caribbean Island that were focused on using tourism development to improved Islands’ local population living standards and increase of opportunities for improvement in employment and business.

  • University of Dublin, Ireland
  • Title:Pyroprocessing and Reactivity of Saudi Arabian Red mud (RM) Waste for the Production of Sustainable Binders
  • Time :12:45 - 01:00 PM

Abstract
The high embodied energy and Carbon emissions of traditional binders have led to a search for alternative cements. This paper explores the composition and reactivity of a red mud (RM) generated in vast quantities in Saudi Arabia, with a view to replace non-sustainable binders in construction.
RM waste is produced when refining bauxite for the production of aluminium. Previous authors estimate that 70-120 million tons of RM are generated annually, and stored on land or in the ocean near alumina refineries. In Ma’aden, current production is around 6,000 tonnes per day (over 2 million tonnes per year) which leads to long term disposal problems and land decommissioning costs. To date, due to its high alkalinity, only small quantities RM (3 wt.%) have been incorporated into Portland cement. However, the quantities need to raise to at least 5-10% for a worthy disposal option, and a viable option has not yet been found.
This paper studies the physical properties, composition and reactivity of the Saudi RM, and concludes on its possible application as a binder. The silica content and alkalinity are considered, as well as the specific surface area and composition which determine reactivity. According to the results, the RM presents abundant surface available to reaction, superior to commercial Portland cement and to other pozzolanic and supplementary cements such as FA and GGBS. The results also evidenced that gibbsite- Al (OH)3 , hematite -Fe₂O3 and cancrinite – Na₆Ca₂[(CO₃)₂|Al₆Si₆O₂₄]• 2H₂O are the main components of the RM, and that some Boehmite- ϒ- AlO(OH) is also present, inherited form the parent bauxite. The high alkalinity and temperature of the Bayer process have transformed the original kaolinite into cancrinite. The phase transformation of the RM resulting from the pyroprocessing at several temperatures are determined with X-Ray Diffraction analyses. The paper explores the evolution of the crystalline phases and their reactivity based on the setting and strength development.

Biography
Dr. Sara Pavia is a Professor in the Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Dublin Trinity College. Her work focusses on sustainable materials and construction including thermal insulation, alkali-activated cements and pozzolanic binders, earth construction, building limes, bio-aggregate concretes and waste activation. She also works on historic buildings in both industry and academia.
She has published seven books and 150 papers and she often works in industry, for Government bodies and in several European groups such as RILEM and CEN.

  • Federico II Naples University, Italy
  • Title:Human Exposures to Rare earth Elements: Present Knowledge and Research Prospects
  • Time :11:45 - 12:00 PM

Abstract
Compared to the growing body of literature on REE-associated toxicity in a number of biota, relatively scarce reports are available on the effects of human occupational REE exposures. Early studies reported on the adverse effects of REE aerosol or dust, as case reports of respiratory damage in movie operators or lens grinders. More recent studies of occupational REE exposures were carried out on miners and on workers manufacturing cerium and lanthanum oxide, with reports of increased hair REE levels vs. controls, dysregulation of protein expression, and increased urinary REE levels vs. controls. A study of occupational exposures to REEs and other metals in e-waste processing was focused on the prevalence of anemia. The levels of REEs and other metals were found higher in anemic vs. non-anemic workers, suggesting that the higher REE and metal levels in anemic workers could play a role in the development of anemia.
Beyond the previously published studies, the currently widespread use of REEs in an extensive range of technologies raises environmental concern for occupational REE exposures including, among others, in the petrochemical industry and car repair due to the use of La in oil refining and of Ce for catalytic additives in diesel fuel production. We have an on-going study of REE levels in mechanic workshops, aimed at evaluating the effects of REE-containing diesel exhaust particulate matter among exposed workers. The current results point to different REE content on the workshop floor related to different exhaust abatement devices, as well as increased REE levels in urine of mechanics vs. controls. Whether, or not, REE excretion is accompanied by hair accumulation is a matter of on-going investigation.
Other subjects of investigation following occupational REE exposures, such as production of REE-containing supermagnets for wind turbines and for hybrid engines, warrant ad hoc research efforts.

Biography
Dr. Giovanni Pagano (GP) has been active for 40 years in studies of the adverse effects of several xenobiotics and complex mixtures. After retiring from the Italian National Cancer Institute in Naples, GP has remained active in international research activities. To date GP is committed as a Research Contractor at the Department of Chemical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy. The subject of this presentation – REEs – has been investigated within an international research team, since an early paper in 2010.

  • Obafemi Awolowo University. Nigeria
  • Title:A GIS-based site investigation for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Nigeria
  • Time :02:00 - 02:15 PM

Abstract
The Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) has identified some sites for possible constructions of nuclear power plants in Nigeria. This paper addresses the conduct of a Geographic Information System (GIS) based suitability assessment of these sites for the proposed Nuclear Power Plant. Attempts to recommend sites for the nuclear power plants and other major constructions in Nigeria have been made in view of historical and recent occurrences both at regional and local level, with earthquake occurrences in Ghana (18th December, 1636 Ms = 5.7; 1862 ML~ 6.5 and Ms ≥ 6.5; 11th February, 1907 and 22nd of June, 1939 Ms~ 6.5 and mb~ 6.4), Guinea 22nd December, 1983 with (MW~ 6.3) coupled with recent activities of volcanic eruption of mount Cameroun (1986, 1999, 2000). The buried equatorial fault lines emanating from the seismically active zones of the Gulf of Guinea are in reactivation state. This study entails the use of GIS to integrate available administrative and comprehensive tectonic maps of Nigeria. Database for the recommended sites is in line with the guidelines and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. In this paper, recommended sites are those where seismic and other hazards are considered to be at the bearest minimum.

  • Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan
  • Title:The Epidemiology of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Japan: Findings from a Nationwide Multi-Center Survey
  • Time :02:15 - 02:30 PM

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current epidemiology of DDH using a comprehensive nationwide survey in Japan. A questionnaire was sent to orthopedic surgeons in 1,987 facilities nationwide. A total of 783 (39%) facilities completed and returned the card of DDH. Of these, 79% reported no cases of DDH-related dislocation over the 2-year period, while the remaining facilities reported 1,295 cases.
The characteristics of children diagnosed with DDH-related dislocation were as follows: girls (89%), left side involvement (69%), bilateral involvement (4%), positive family history (27%), first-born (53%), and pelvic position at birth (15%). Seasonal variation showed an increase in DDH incidence among those born in the winter. Overall, 199 cases (15%) were diagnosed at >1 year of age, and these included 36 cases diagnosed very late, at >3 years of age. The majority of the 199 cases of late diagnosis had received earlier routine screening at <1 year of age. The characteristics of the children diagnosed with DDH nationwide were similar to past data from local regions. However, many children were diagnosed late (>1 year of age), particularly in the more populous regions. The findings identify a need for improved early routine screening for DDH in Japan.
Biography
Dr. Tadashi Hattori 1980 Graduated from Shinsyu University School of Medicine , Nagano, Japan
Professional career
1987-1998 Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
1998-2003 Aichi Prefectural Colony, Central Hospital, Kasugai, Japan
2003-2020 Aichi Children’s Health and Medical Center (ACHMC), Obu, Japan
Society Memberships
Japanese Pediatric Orthopedic Society
Executive-Director (2013~2018), Congress president (2020)
Japanese Society of Orthopedic Ultrasonics
Executive-Director (1995~2016), President (2017~)

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