Green Nanotechnology is the need of the hour. Nanotechnologies have an impact on developing green and clean technologies with considerable environmental benefits. We have seen the use of nanotechnology in areas ranging from water treatment to energy breakthroughs and hydrogen applications. In fact, renewable energy applications are the areas where nanotechnology will make its first large-scale commercial breakthroughs. This area includes the actual processes of manufacturing nanomaterials and the environmental footprint they create in absolute terms and in comparison with existing industrial manufacturing processes. As such, green nanotechnology requires a full life cycle assessment like any other industrially manufactured products. This session discusses more about green nanotechnologies.
Power And Energy Engineering
Power engineering is nothing but to convert other forms of energy into electric power. These sources of power include fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, solar power, and wind power. Power engineers deal with devices such as motors, batteries, capacitors; processes and phenomena such as power conversion, power drop and blackouts; analysis and design such as estimation of the stability of a power network and power flow studies; and areas such as renewable energy and environmentally-friendly power systems. This session discusses more about advance technologies and the state of the art in power engineering of next generation of power engineers.
Energy Recycling & Conservation
Energy Recycling and Conservation is the need of the hour. We need to concentrate on building waste which reduces the need for energy and natural resources and reduce the amount of material to landfill. Knowledge of the size of the annual conservation potential is important. We need to assess the conservation of energy and natural resources and the amount of material to landfill by recycling building waste. We need to concentrate maximum material recycling and combustion with energy recovery and maximum reuse. Conservation of resources, considerable growth potential, possibilities, constraints and need for further studies are discussed. This session discusses more about energy recycling and conservation.
Green Technology & Architecture
Green technology sustainable architecture comprises sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic, wind turbines, bioreactors, etc. with an ultimate goal on sustainable architecture development. Its goal is to find ways to create new technologies in such a way that they do not damage or deplete the planet’s natural resources and aid in the reduction of global warming, greenhouse effect, pollution and climate change. The global reduction of greenhouse gases is dependent on the adoption of energy conservation technologies at the industrial level as well as this clean energy generation. That includes using unleaded gasoline, solar energy and alternative fuel vehicles, including plug-in hybrid and hybrid electric vehicles. This session discusses more about green technology and architecture.
Green Chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovative research on the development of alternative sustainable technologies. Green chemistry is the utilisation of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products. Green Chemistry is at the frontiers of this interdisciplinary science that attempts to reduce the environmental impact of the chemical enterprise by developing a technology base that is inherently non-toxic to living things and the environment. Submissions on all aspects of research relating to the endeavour are welcome. This session discusses more about green
chemistry like the design of new, greener and safer chemicals and materials, the use of sustainable resource, the use of biotechnology alternatives to chemistry-based solutions, etc.
Energy, Environment & Sustainability
There is every need to focus on all aspects of energy and environmental sustainability, especially as it relates to energy concerns. As such we need to study renewable energy, alternative fuels, engines and locomotives, combustion and propulsion, fossil fuels, carbon capture, and control, automation for energy, environmental pollution, waste management etc. The importance of individual energy sources and options for power generation are changing, as are the ways in which electricity is transmitted and distributed. Transportation sustainability energy systems are changing fundamentally and fast. Power generation is becoming more and more decentralized making grid management increasingly complex. Electrical consumption continues to steadily rise all over the world. This session discusses more about energy and environment and sustainability.
Climate change is the catch-all term for the shift in worldwide weather phenomena associated with an increase in global average temperatures. It’s real and temperatures have been going up around the world for many decades. Reliable temperature records began in 1850 and our world is now about one degree Celcius hotter than it was in the period between 1850 and 1900 referred to as pre-industrial average. The change is even more visible over a shorter time period compared to average temperatures between 1961 and 1990, 2017 was 0.68 degrees warmer, while 2016 was 0.8 degrees warmer. Thanks to an extra boost from the naturally-occurring El Niño weather system. This session discusses more about climate changes and its impact on our universe.
Biomass & Bioenergy
Biomass is the source of Bioenergy. It is organic matter in the form of wood, leaves, grasses, seeds, and all the other forms that plants and animals can take as living or recently dead organisms and parts thereof. Bioenergy is the term used to refer to the energy, heat or electricity that is created by burning biofuels. In many cases, it must be processed in some way to convert it to a usable fuel that is capable of producing energy. Such forms include pellets used to fire a generator in the same way that coal is used today, alcohol that is burned as motor fuel, and methane gas, which can be used in much the same way as natural gas. This session discusses more about biomass and bioenergy.
Biofuels are combustible fuels created from biomass. These biofuels are created from recently living plant matter as opposed to ancient plant matter in hydrocarbons. Biofuels reference liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel that are used as replacements for transportation fuels like petroleum, diesel and jet fuel. Biofuels can also include solid fuels like wood pellets and biogas or syngas. IN liquid fuels there are two main types of biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel. The simplest way to distinguish between the two is to remember ethanol is an alcohol and biodiesel is oil. Ethanol is an alcohol formed by fermentation and can be used as gasoline whereas biodiesel is produced by extracting naturally occurring oils from plants and seeds. This session discusses more about biofuels.
Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy
Renewable sources provide energy which is constantly regenerated by means of chemical transformations such as biomass; or physical transformations such as water power, solar, wind power, etc. In particular the sun, the wind, the water cycle, the tides, the heat of the Earth are non-exhaustible sources, which are always available and will never end. Whereas non-renewable sources provide energy through fossil fuels like oil, coal, natural gas, uranium etc. which it takes for millions of years to regenerate these fossil fuels. These sources although there is still plenty of them are limited and represent a sort of energy warehouse on the Earth. This session discusses more about renewable and non-renewable energy.
Environmental Microbiology & Bioremediation
The role of bioreporters and its application in Environmental Microbiology & Bioremediation is immense and needs to be examined critically. Bio-reporters have been widely acknowledged to represent new and novel approaches in environmental microbiology and bioremediation. Despite a plethora of constructions covering a diverse range of detection devices and host organisms, genuine applications are rare. Their application in the areas of general environmental microbiology, analytical detection and bioremediation are summarized and critically considered. Future applications require a more integrated approach such that those constructing bioreporters are aware of the needs of the end-user. A decade ago, predictions were made of the pivotal role of bioreporters and our future reliance; this fortune telling may take another decade to reach fruition. This session discusses more about environmental microbiology and bioremediation.
Climate Change And Health
Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health which include clean air, safe drinking water, and sufficient food and secure shelter. Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress. The direct damage costs to health exclude costs in health-determining sectors such as agriculture and water and sanitation is estimated to be between USD 2-4 billion/year by 2030. Areas with weak health infrastructure mostly in developing countries shall be the least able to cope without assistance to prepare and respond. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases through better transport, food and energy-use choices can result in improved health, particularly through reduced air pollution. This session discusses more of impacts of climate changes and health issues of human life, animal life and plant life.
Biodiversity or Biological diversity is a term that describes the variety of living beings on earth; and is described as degree of variation of life. Biological diversity encompasses microorganism, plants, animals and ecosystems such as coral reefs, forests, rainforests, deserts etc. Biodiversity also refers to the number, or abundance of different species living within a particular region. It represents the wealth of biological resources available to us. It’s all about the sustaining the natural area made up of community of plants, animals, and other living things that is begin reduced at a steady rate as we plan human activities that is being reduced by habitat destruction. This session discusses more about biodiversity.
Renewable And Clean Energy To Mitigate Climate Change
Demand for Renewable and Clean Energy to Mitigate Climate Change is increasing to meet social and economic development and improve human welfare and health. All societies require energy services to meet basic human needs such as lighting, cooking, space comfort, mobility and communication and to serve productive processes. Since approximately 1850, global use of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas has increased to dominate energy supply, leading to a rapid growth in carbon dioxide emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the provision of energy services have contributed significantly to the historic increase in atmospheric GHG concentrations. This session discusses more on what we need to do to mitigate climate change through clean energy and bioethics renewable.
Materials For Energy And Environmental Sustainability
Constructing with sustainable materials is good for the planet. A sustainable material is one that does not deplete non-renewable resources. It will not have no adverse impact on the environment when used. We need to preserve natural resources in many ways. For instance, we can avoid using scarce non-renewable materials, such as peat and weathered limestone. Create less waste. Use reclaimed and rather than new materials. And use renewable materials such as crops. For environmental sustainability, we can reduce the impact on environmental by using materials with low embodied energy. Reduce transport of materials and associated fuel, emissions and road congestion, and prevention of waste going to landfill. This session discusses more about materials for energy and environmental sustainability.
Energy Storage, Conversion & Grid Modernization
Energy storage technology is applied to a number of areas that differ in power and energy requirements. Energy Storage Program performs research and development on a wide variety of storage technologies. This broad technology base includes batteries, electrochemical capacitors, flywheels, power electronics, control systems, and software tools for storage optimization and sizing. Among these benefits are improved power quality and the reliable delivery of electricity to customers; improved stability and reliability of transmission and distribution systems; increased use of existing equipment, thereby deferring or eliminating costly upgrades; improved availability and increased market value of distributed generation sources; improved value of renewable energy generation. This session discusses more about energy storage, conversion & grid modernization.
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics.
An ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscape, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems contain biotic or living, parts, as well as abiotic factors, or nonliving parts.
The thermal environment refers to the things that can affect heat transfer at that point. Heat transfer is the process of thermal exchange between different systems. Generally there will be a net heat transfer from a hotter system to a cooler system.
Agroecology is an applied science that studies ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. Bringing ecological principles to bear can suggest new management approaches in agroecosystems. The term is often used imprecisely, as the term can be used as a science, a movement, or an agricultural practice. Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems. The field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional, intensive or extensive, although some use the name specifically for alternative agriculture.
Horticulture is the agriculture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty for decoration. Horticulturists apply knowledge, skills, and technologies to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value and resistance to insects, diseases and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from the surface; it may discharge from the surface naturally at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology.
Livestock and Animal Health
Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor livestock keepers, traders and labourers throughout the developing world. Diseases affecting livestock can have a devastating impact on animal productivity and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health and, consequently, on the overall process of economic development.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from sustainable biomass sources, for example, vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, food waste, etc.Bioplastic can be produced using agricultural byproducts and furthermore from utilized plastic jugs and different containes utilizing microorganisms. Regular plastics, for example, non-renewable energy source plastics (additionally called petrobased polymers) are derived from oil or gaseous petrol. Not all bioplastics are biodegradable nor biodegrade more promptly than product petroleum product determined plastics. Bioplastics are normally derived from sugar subsidiaries, including starch, cellulose, and lactic corrosive. Starting at 2014, bioplastics spoke to roughly 0.2% of the worldwide polymer showcase (300 million tons).
Environmental Management And Sustainable Cities
Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an organization’s environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environematal protection. Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. It aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for future human generations, and also maintain ecosystem integrity through considering ethical,economic,and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify factors affected by conflicts that rise between meeting needs and protecting resources. It is thus linked to environmentalprotection,sustainability and integrated landscape management. Sustainable cities, urban sustainability, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration for social, economic, environmental impact and resilient habitat for existing populations, without compromising the ability of future generations to experience the same. These cities are inhabited by people whom are dedicated towards minimization of required inputs of energy, water, food, waste, output of heat, air pollution-CO2,methane and water pollution. Ideally, a sustainable city creates an enduring way of life across the four domains of ecology, economics, politics and culture. However, minimally a sustainable city should firstly be able to feed itself with a sustainable reliance on the surrounding countryside. Secondly, it should be able to power itself with renewable sources of energy. The core of this is to create the smallest conceivable ecological foot print, while producing the lowest quantity of pollution achievable. All while efficiently using the land; composting used materials, and recycling or converting waste to energy. All of these contributions will lead to the city’s overall impacts on climate change to be minimal and with as little impact.